General Social Survey, 1978

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


CLASS

If you were asked to use one of four names for your social class, which would you say you belong in: the lower class, the working class, the middle class, or the upper class?
  1) Lower class
  2) Working class
  3) Middle class
  4) Upper class
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Lower class 83 5.4% 5.4% -2.02
Working class 715 46.7% 52.1% -.64
Middle class 693 45.2% 97.3% .74
Upper class 36 2.3% 99.7% 2.11
Don't know 2 .1% 99.8% 7.63
No answer 3 .2% 100% 9.01

Variable Comparisons


Age (I-AGE)

18-30 31-44 45-59 60-74 75+ TOTAL
Lower class 5.4%
24
3.0%
13
5.1%
16
7.5%
18
12.2%
12
5.4%
83
Working class 54.5%
243
48.2%
206
45.4%
142
42.3%
102
20.4%
20
46.8%
713
Middle class 39.7%
177
45.7%
195
46.0%
144
46.5%
112
61.2%
60
45.1%
688
Upper class 0.4%
2
2.6%
11
3.2%
10
3.3%
8
5.1%
5
2.4%
36
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.5%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
2
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
1
0.4%
1
1.0%
1
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
446
100.0%
427
100.0%
313
100.0%
241
100.0%
98

1525


Sex (I-SEX)

Male Female TOTAL
Lower class 4.8%
31
5.8%
52
5.4%
83
Working class 47.4%
305
46.1%
410
46.7%
715
Middle class 44.9%
289
45.4%
404
45.2%
693
Upper class 2.5%
16
2.2%
20
2.3%
36
Don't know 0.3%
2
0.0%
0
0.1%
2
No answer 0.0%
0
0.3%
3
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
643
100.0%
889

1532


Education (I-EDUC)

Less than high school High school Associate/Junior college Bachelor's Graduate TOTAL
Lower class 11.1%
52
3.4%
27
4.8%
2
1.3%
2
0.0%
0
5.4%
83
Working class 54.5%
256
50.9%
409
33.3%
14
19.9%
30
6.5%
4
46.6%
713
Middle class 33.4%
157
43.7%
351
59.5%
25
71.5%
108
82.3%
51
45.3%
692
Upper class 0.4%
2
1.9%
15
2.4%
1
7.3%
11
11.3%
7
2.4%
36
Don't know 0.2%
1
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
2
No answer 0.4%
2
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
470
100.0%
804
100.0%
42
100.0%
151
100.0%
62

1529


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Lower class 4.5%
61
12.7%
20
12.5%
2
5.4%
83
Working class 45.4%
617
57.6%
91
43.8%
7
46.7%
715
Middle class 47.5%
645
26.6%
42
37.5%
6
45.2%
693
Upper class 2.2%
30
3.2%
5
6.3%
1
2.3%
36
Don't know 0.1%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
2
No answer 0.2%
3
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
1358
100.0%
158
100.0%
16

1532


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Lower class 5.5%
54
6.3%
24
3.4%
1
2.5%
3
5.9%
1
5.4%
83
Working class 48.3%
473
44.8%
172
10.3%
3
46.2%
55
47.1%
8
46.5%
711
Middle class 44.0%
431
46.4%
178
72.4%
21
46.2%
55
47.1%
8
45.4%
693
Upper class 1.8%
18
2.6%
10
13.8%
4
3.4%
4
0.0%
0
2.4%
36
Don't know 0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.8%
1
0.0%
0
0.1%
2
No answer 0.2%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.8%
1
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
979
100.0%
384
100.0%
29
100.0%
119
100.0%
17

1528


Political party (I-PARTYID)

Democrat Independent Republican Other TOTAL
Lower class 6.1%
37
5.0%
28
4.8%
17
0.0%
0
5.4%
82
Working class 50.9%
308
46.1%
256
40.9%
146
30.0%
3
46.7%
713
Middle class 40.2%
243
46.1%
256
51.8%
185
70.0%
7
45.3%
691
Upper class 2.6%
16
2.3%
13
2.0%
7
0.0%
0
2.4%
36
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.3%
1
0.0%
0
0.1%
2
No answer 0.2%
1
0.2%
1
0.3%
1
0.0%
0
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
605
100.0%
555
100.0%
357
100.0%
10

1527


Region (I-REGION)

Northeast Midwest South West TOTAL
Lower class 4.8%
16
5.2%
23
6.0%
30
5.6%
14
5.4%
83
Working class 41.5%
139
44.2%
196
51.0%
256
49.2%
124
46.7%
715
Middle class 50.4%
169
48.5%
215
40.2%
202
42.5%
107
45.2%
693
Upper class 3.0%
10
1.8%
8
2.4%
12
2.4%
6
2.3%
36
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.1%
2
No answer 0.3%
1
0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.4%
1
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
335
100.0%
443
100.0%
502
100.0%
252

1532


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Never Less than once a month Less than once a week Weekly or more TOTAL
Lower class 6.7%
16
5.9%
30
5.9%
21
3.8%
16
5.4%
83
Working class 48.1%
115
49.9%
255
45.4%
161
42.7%
180
46.6%
711
Middle class 43.5%
104
41.7%
213
46.2%
164
50.0%
211
45.3%
692
Upper class 1.3%
3
2.3%
12
2.3%
8
3.1%
13
2.4%
36
Don't know 0.4%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.1%
2
No answer 0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.3%
1
0.2%
1
0.2%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
239
100.0%
511
100.0%
355
100.0%
422

1527

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