General Social Survey, 1991

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


GETAHEAD

Some people say that people get ahead by their own hard work; others say that lucky breaks or help from other people are more important. Which do you think is most important?
  1) Hard work most important
  2) Hard work, luck equally important
  3) Luck most important
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Hard work most important 651 65.6% 65.6% -.52
Hard work, luck equally important 203 20.4% 86% .4
Luck most important 125 12.6% 98.6% 1.32
Don't know 7 .7% 99.3% 5.9
No answer 7 .7% 100% 6.82

Variable Comparisons


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 30-44 45-59 60-74 75 and older TOTAL
Hard work most important 72.3%
154
63.8%
224
60.7%
108
64.2%
111
69.7%
53
65.6%
650
Hard work, luck equally important 13.6%
29
23.1%
81
20.8%
37
23.7%
41
19.7%
15
20.5%
203
Luck most important 13.6%
29
11.4%
40
16.9%
30
11.0%
19
9.2%
7
12.6%
125
Don't know 0.5%
1
0.9%
3
0.6%
1
0.6%
1
1.3%
1
0.7%
7
No answer 0.0%
0
0.9%
3
1.1%
2
0.6%
1
0.0%
0
0.6%
6
TOTAL 100.0%
213
100.0%
351
100.0%
178
100.0%
173
100.0%
76

991


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Less than once a year About once or twice a year Several times a year About once a month Nearly every week Once a week or more TOTAL
Hard work most important 61.4%
132
69.3%
95
64.1%
84
66.3%
110
68.4%
39
66.7%
178
65.6%
638
Hard work, luck equally important 24.7%
53
17.5%
24
21.4%
28
18.7%
31
19.3%
11
19.5%
52
20.5%
199
Luck most important 12.6%
27
13.1%
18
12.2%
16
13.9%
23
8.8%
5
13.1%
35
12.7%
124
Don't know 1.4%
3
0.0%
0
1.5%
2
0.6%
1
0.0%
0
0.4%
1
0.7%
7
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.8%
1
0.6%
1
3.5%
2
0.4%
1
0.5%
5
TOTAL 100.0%
215
100.0%
137
100.0%
131
100.0%
166
100.0%
57
100.0%
267

973


Education (I-EDUC)

Less than high school High school Junior College Bachelor's degree Graduate degree TOTAL
Hard work most important 64.6%
126
67.9%
374
63.4%
26
63.8%
90
56.9%
33
65.8%
649
Hard work, luck equally important 24.6%
48
18.5%
102
24.4%
10
22.0%
31
20.7%
12
20.6%
203
Luck most important 9.2%
18
13.1%
72
12.2%
5
12.8%
18
19.0%
11
12.6%
124
Don't know 1.5%
3
0.4%
2
0.0%
0
0.7%
1
1.7%
1
0.7%
7
No answer 0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.7%
1
1.7%
1
0.3%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
195
100.0%
551
100.0%
41
100.0%
141
100.0%
58

986


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Hard work most important 63.5%
273
67.1%
378
65.6%
651
Hard work, luck equally important 21.2%
91
19.9%
112
20.4%
203
Luck most important 14.0%
60
11.5%
65
12.6%
125
Don't know 0.9%
4
0.5%
3
0.7%
7
No answer 0.5%
2
0.9%
5
0.7%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
430
100.0%
563

993


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Hard work most important 66.4%
424
67.2%
166
66.7%
14
52.9%
37
66.7%
10
65.6%
651
Hard work, luck equally important 19.6%
125
20.6%
51
14.3%
3
28.6%
20
26.7%
4
20.5%
203
Luck most important 12.8%
82
11.3%
28
19.0%
4
14.3%
10
6.7%
1
12.6%
125
Don't know 0.6%
4
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
4.3%
3
0.0%
0
0.7%
7
No answer 0.6%
4
0.8%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.6%
6
TOTAL 100.0%
639
100.0%
247
100.0%
21
100.0%
70
100.0%
15

992


Political ideology (I-POLITICS)

Liberal and extremely liberal Slightly liberal Moderate, middle or the road Slightly conservative Conservative Extremely conservative TOTAL
Hard work most important 60.3%
79
69.6%
96
65.2%
249
66.7%
94
66.7%
90
67.2%
43
65.7%
651
Hard work, luck equally important 25.2%
33
14.5%
20
22.0%
84
20.6%
29
19.3%
26
17.2%
11
20.5%
203
Luck most important 13.7%
18
15.2%
21
11.3%
43
12.1%
17
13.3%
18
12.5%
8
12.6%
125
Don't know 0.8%
1
0.0%
0
0.8%
3
0.7%
1
0.0%
0
3.1%
2
0.7%
7
No answer 0.0%
0
0.7%
1
0.8%
3
0.0%
0
0.7%
1
0.0%
0
0.5%
5
TOTAL 100.0%
131
100.0%
138
100.0%
382
100.0%
141
100.0%
135
100.0%
64

991


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Hard work most important 67.8%
559
51.5%
67
65.8%
25
65.6%
651
Hard work, luck equally important 19.8%
163
25.4%
33
18.4%
7
20.4%
203
Luck most important 12.1%
100
16.2%
21
10.5%
4
12.6%
125
Don't know 0.2%
2
3.1%
4
2.6%
1
0.7%
7
No answer 0.1%
1
3.8%
5
2.6%
1
0.7%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
825
100.0%
130
100.0%
38

993

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