General Social Survey, 1993

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


GETAHEAD

Some people say that people get ahead by their own hard work; others say that lucky breaks or help from other people are more important. Which do you think is most important?
  1) Hard work most important
  2) Hard work, luck equally important
  3) Luck most important
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Hard work most important 703 65.4% 65.4% -.56
Hard work, luck equally important 231 21.5% 86.9% .54
Luck most important 134 12.5% 99.3% 1.64
Don't know 3 .3% 99.6% 7.14
No answer 4 .4% 100% 8.24

Variable Comparisons


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 30-44 45-59 60-74 75 and older TOTAL
Hard work most important 69.3%
140
66.6%
245
66.3%
163
59.6%
99
60.7%
54
65.5%
701
Hard work, luck equally important 19.3%
39
21.2%
78
19.9%
49
24.1%
40
28.1%
25
21.6%
231
Luck most important 11.4%
23
12.0%
44
12.6%
31
15.1%
25
10.1%
9
12.3%
132
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.3%
1
0.4%
1
0.0%
0
1.1%
1
0.3%
3
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.8%
2
1.2%
2
0.0%
0
0.4%
4
TOTAL 100.0%
202
100.0%
368
100.0%
246
100.0%
166
100.0%
89

1071


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Less than once a year About once or twice a year Several times a year About once a month Two to three times a month Nearly every week Once a week or more TOTAL
Hard work most important 65.9%
168
50.7%
69
64.5%
71
60.6%
40
67.6%
69
81.2%
56
68.8%
212
65.5%
685
Hard work, luck equally important 21.6%
55
32.4%
44
22.7%
25
22.7%
15
25.5%
26
13.0%
9
17.9%
55
21.9%
229
Luck most important 11.8%
30
16.9%
23
12.7%
14
16.7%
11
6.9%
7
4.3%
3
13.0%
40
12.2%
128
Don't know 0.8%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
1.4%
1
0.3%
1
0.2%
2
TOTAL 100.0%
255
100.0%
136
100.0%
110
100.0%
66
100.0%
102
100.0%
69
100.0%
308

1046


Education (I-EDUC)

Less than high school High school Junior college Bachelor's degree Graduate degree TOTAL
Hard work most important 65.8%
129
67.3%
378
59.1%
39
64.1%
109
60.3%
47
65.5%
702
Hard work, luck equally important 19.4%
38
20.1%
113
19.7%
13
22.9%
39
35.9%
28
21.5%
231
Luck most important 13.8%
27
12.1%
68
21.2%
14
12.9%
22
3.8%
3
12.5%
134
Don't know 0.5%
1
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
No answer 0.5%
1
0.4%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
3
TOTAL 100.0%
196
100.0%
562
100.0%
66
100.0%
170
100.0%
78

1072


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Hard work most important 62.2%
286
67.8%
417
65.4%
703
Hard work, luck equally important 24.3%
112
19.3%
119
21.5%
231
Luck most important 13.0%
60
12.0%
74
12.5%
134
Don't know 0.2%
1
0.3%
2
0.3%
3
No answer 0.2%
1
0.5%
3
0.4%
4
TOTAL 100.0%
460
100.0%
615

1075


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Hard work most important 68.9%
474
61.6%
146
56.5%
13
57.6%
53
46.4%
13
65.4%
699
Hard work, luck equally important 19.9%
137
22.4%
53
21.7%
5
27.2%
25
35.7%
10
21.5%
230
Luck most important 10.5%
72
16.0%
38
21.7%
5
15.2%
14
17.9%
5
12.5%
134
Don't know 0.4%
3
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
3
No answer 0.3%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
TOTAL 100.0%
688
100.0%
237
100.0%
23
100.0%
92
100.0%
28

1068


Political ideology (I-POLITICS)

Liberal and extremely liberal Slightly liberal Moderate, middle of the road Slightly conservative Conservative Extremely conservative TOTAL
Hard work most important 63.2%
91
59.4%
79
66.2%
259
66.5%
109
71.1%
123
73.1%
19
66.0%
680
Hard work, luck equally important 24.3%
35
31.6%
42
19.7%
77
20.1%
33
18.5%
32
15.4%
4
21.6%
223
Luck most important 12.5%
18
8.3%
11
13.8%
54
13.4%
22
10.4%
18
11.5%
3
12.2%
126
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.8%
1
0.3%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
TOTAL 100.0%
144
100.0%
133
100.0%
391
100.0%
164
100.0%
173
100.0%
26

1031


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Hard work most important 66.3%
596
62.2%
79
57.1%
28
65.4%
703
Hard work, luck equally important 21.8%
196
18.1%
23
24.5%
12
21.5%
231
Luck most important 11.5%
103
17.3%
22
18.4%
9
12.5%
134
Don't know 0.3%
3
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
3
No answer 0.1%
1
2.4%
3
0.0%
0
0.4%
4
TOTAL 100.0%
899
100.0%
127
100.0%
49

1075

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