General Social Survey, 1993

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


GOD

Please look at this card and tell me which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God. I don't believe in God; I don't know whether there is a God and I don't believe there is any way to find out; I don't believe in a personal God, but I do believe in a Higher Power of some kind; I find myself believing in God some of the time, but not at others; While I have doubts, I feel that I do believe in God; I know God really exists and I have no doubts about it.
  1) Don't believe
  2) Don't know, no way to find out
  3) Higher power
  4) Believe sometimes
  5) Believe with doubts
  6) No doubts
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Don't believe 44 2.8% 2.8% -2.93
Don't know, no way to find out 63 4% 6.9% -2.26
Higher power 127 8.2% 15% -1.58
Believe sometimes 47 3% 18% -.91
Believe with doubts 224 14.4% 32.4% -.24
No doubts 992 63.7% 96.1% .44
Don't know 23 1.5% 97.6% 1.79
No answer 37 2.4% 100% 2.46

Variable Comparisons


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 30-44 45-59 60-74 75 and older TOTAL
Don't believe 2.1%
6
3.1%
17
3.5%
12
2.8%
7
0.8%
1
2.8%
43
Don't know, no way to find out 5.5%
16
4.9%
27
3.5%
12
1.6%
4
3.4%
4
4.1%
63
Higher power 6.2%
18
8.4%
46
9.5%
33
6.9%
17
10.1%
12
8.1%
126
Believe sometimes 4.5%
13
2.9%
16
3.8%
13
1.6%
4
0.8%
1
3.0%
47
Believe with doubts 15.1%
44
18.2%
100
12.4%
43
11.3%
28
7.6%
9
14.4%
224
No doubts 64.9%
189
58.5%
321
63.3%
219
70.6%
175
72.3%
86
63.7%
990
Don't know 0.7%
2
2.0%
11
1.4%
5
1.6%
4
0.8%
1
1.5%
23
No answer 1.0%
3
2.0%
11
2.6%
9
3.6%
9
4.2%
5
2.4%
37
TOTAL 100.0%
291
100.0%
549
100.0%
346
100.0%
248
100.0%
119

1553


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Less than once a year About once or twice a year Several times a year About once a month Two to three times a month Nearly every week Once a week or more TOTAL
Don't believe 7.8%
30
0.5%
1
1.2%
2
1.8%
2
1.5%
2
2.1%
2
1.1%
5
2.9%
44
Don't know, no way to find out 9.6%
37
7.6%
14
4.7%
8
0.9%
1
0.7%
1
0.0%
0
0.2%
1
4.1%
62
Higher power 16.6%
64
11.9%
22
11.2%
19
6.4%
7
7.5%
10
0.0%
0
0.7%
3
8.2%
125
Believe sometimes 4.7%
18
5.4%
10
3.5%
6
3.6%
4
0.7%
1
3.1%
3
0.9%
4
3.0%
46
Believe with doubts 15.5%
60
20.0%
37
19.4%
33
18.2%
20
16.4%
22
9.4%
9
9.3%
41
14.6%
222
No doubts 39.9%
154
48.6%
90
57.1%
97
66.4%
73
69.4%
93
82.3%
79
85.6%
379
63.3%
965
Don't know 2.1%
8
3.2%
6
1.8%
3
1.8%
2
0.0%
0
1.0%
1
0.7%
3
1.5%
23
No answer 3.9%
15
2.7%
5
1.2%
2
0.9%
1
3.7%
5
2.1%
2
1.6%
7
2.4%
37
TOTAL 100.0%
386
100.0%
185
100.0%
170
100.0%
110
100.0%
134
100.0%
96
100.0%
443

1524


Education (I-EDUC)

Less than high school High school Junior college Bachelor's degree Graduate degree TOTAL
Don't believe 2.1%
6
2.5%
20
2.1%
2
4.4%
11
4.4%
5
2.8%
44
Don't know, no way to find out 1.4%
4
3.2%
26
2.1%
2
6.8%
17
12.3%
14
4.1%
63
Higher power 3.5%
10
8.4%
68
7.4%
7
11.2%
28
12.3%
14
8.2%
127
Believe sometimes 1.4%
4
3.7%
30
2.1%
2
2.8%
7
3.5%
4
3.0%
47
Believe with doubts 9.9%
28
14.3%
116
11.7%
11
17.7%
44
21.9%
25
14.4%
224
No doubts 75.3%
213
64.5%
525
69.1%
65
55.0%
137
43.9%
50
63.7%
990
Don't know 2.1%
6
1.8%
15
0.0%
0
0.4%
1
0.9%
1
1.5%
23
No answer 4.2%
12
1.7%
14
5.3%
5
1.6%
4
0.9%
1
2.3%
36
TOTAL 100.0%
283
100.0%
814
100.0%
94
100.0%
249
100.0%
114

1554


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Don't believe 4.8%
32
1.3%
12
2.8%
44
Don't know, no way to find out 7.1%
47
1.8%
16
4.0%
63
Higher power 10.0%
66
6.8%
61
8.2%
127
Believe sometimes 3.8%
25
2.5%
22
3.0%
47
Believe with doubts 14.9%
99
14.0%
125
14.4%
224
No doubts 54.9%
364
70.2%
628
63.7%
992
Don't know 1.8%
12
1.2%
11
1.5%
23
No answer 2.7%
18
2.1%
19
2.4%
37
TOTAL 100.0%
663
100.0%
894

1557


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Don't believe 1.4%
14
1.2%
4
9.4%
3
13.2%
19
10.3%
4
2.8%
44
Don't know, no way to find out 2.4%
24
2.4%
8
12.5%
4
18.1%
26
2.6%
1
4.1%
63
Higher power 5.8%
58
6.2%
21
18.8%
6
23.6%
34
20.5%
8
8.2%
127
Believe sometimes 1.8%
18
3.5%
12
15.6%
5
6.3%
9
7.7%
3
3.0%
47
Believe with doubts 12.8%
127
20.3%
69
18.8%
6
13.2%
19
7.7%
3
14.5%
224
No doubts 71.7%
713
64.1%
218
21.9%
7
20.8%
30
48.7%
19
63.7%
987
Don't know 1.0%
10
1.5%
5
3.1%
1
3.5%
5
2.6%
1
1.4%
22
No answer 3.1%
31
0.9%
3
0.0%
0
1.4%
2
0.0%
0
2.3%
36
TOTAL 100.0%
995
100.0%
340
100.0%
32
100.0%
144
100.0%
39

1550


Political ideology (I-POLITICS)

Liberal and extremely liberal Slightly liberal Moderate, middle of the road Slightly conservative Conservative Extremely conservative TOTAL
Don't believe 10.9%
22
1.0%
2
1.6%
9
2.3%
6
1.6%
4
0.0%
0
2.9%
43
Don't know, no way to find out 6.4%
13
5.6%
11
4.3%
24
3.9%
10
2.1%
5
0.0%
0
4.2%
63
Higher power 14.9%
30
16.8%
33
7.1%
40
3.9%
10
3.7%
9
2.4%
1
8.2%
123
Believe sometimes 4.5%
9
1.0%
2
3.7%
21
3.1%
8
2.5%
6
0.0%
0
3.1%
46
Believe with doubts 16.8%
34
13.7%
27
16.3%
92
16.7%
43
8.6%
21
7.1%
3
14.6%
220
No doubts 43.1%
87
59.4%
117
63.6%
358
67.4%
174
77.8%
189
81.0%
34
63.7%
959
Don't know 0.5%
1
0.5%
1
1.6%
9
0.8%
2
0.8%
2
4.8%
2
1.1%
17
No answer 3.0%
6
2.0%
4
1.8%
10
1.9%
5
2.9%
7
4.8%
2
2.3%
34
TOTAL 100.0%
202
100.0%
197
100.0%
563
100.0%
258
100.0%
243
100.0%
42

1505


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Don't believe 2.5%
33
3.0%
5
8.0%
6
2.8%
44
Don't know, no way to find out 4.6%
60
0.6%
1
2.7%
2
4.0%
63
Higher power 8.6%
113
4.1%
7
9.3%
7
8.2%
127
Believe sometimes 3.0%
40
1.8%
3
5.3%
4
3.0%
47
Believe with doubts 15.7%
206
9.5%
16
2.7%
2
14.4%
224
No doubts 61.5%
807
78.7%
133
69.3%
52
63.7%
992
Don't know 1.6%
21
0.6%
1
1.3%
1
1.5%
23
No answer 2.5%
33
1.8%
3
1.3%
1
2.4%
37
TOTAL 100.0%
1313
100.0%
169
100.0%
75

1557

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