General Social Survey, 1998

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


AFFRMACT

Do you favor or oppose preference in hiring and promotion strongly or not strongly?
  1) Strongly favors
  2) Not strongly favors
  3) Not strongly opposes
  4) Strongly opposes
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Strongly favors 142 7.6% 7.6% -1.73
Not strongly favors 117 6.3% 13.8% -1.1
Not strongly opposes 425 22.7% 36.6% -.48
Strongly opposes 1024 54.7% 91.3% .14
Don't know 145 7.7% 99% 2.62
No answer 18 1% 100% 3.24

Variable Comparisons


Sex (I-SEX)

Male Female TOTAL
Strongly favors 6.7%
54
8.3%
88
7.6%
142
Not strongly favors 5.9%
48
6.5%
69
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 24.0%
195
21.7%
230
22.7%
425
Strongly opposes 56.2%
456
53.6%
568
54.7%
1024
Don't know 6.0%
49
9.1%
96
7.7%
145
No answer 1.1%
9
0.8%
9
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
811
100.0%
1060

1871


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Strongly favors 5.2%
77
20.8%
53
9.4%
12
7.6%
142
Not strongly favors 4.8%
71
13.3%
34
9.4%
12
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 22.7%
338
20.8%
53
26.6%
34
22.7%
425
Strongly opposes 59.6%
887
31.8%
81
43.8%
56
54.7%
1024
Don't know 6.8%
101
12.2%
31
10.2%
13
7.7%
145
No answer 0.9%
14
1.2%
3
0.8%
1
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
1488
100.0%
255
100.0%
128

1871


Religious preference (I-RELIG)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Strongly favors 7.3%
74
6.1%
28
8.8%
3
10.9%
29
8.0%
8
7.6%
142
Not strongly favors 5.6%
57
6.8%
31
5.9%
2
7.1%
19
8.0%
8
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 22.5%
227
25.3%
116
20.6%
7
21.7%
58
17.0%
17
22.7%
425
Strongly opposes 56.6%
572
52.5%
241
61.8%
21
49.8%
133
57.0%
57
54.7%
1024
Don't know 6.9%
70
8.3%
38
2.9%
1
10.1%
27
9.0%
9
7.7%
145
No answer 1.1%
11
1.1%
5
0.0%
0
0.4%
1
1.0%
1
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
1011
100.0%
459
100.0%
34
100.0%
267
100.0%
100

1871


Marital status (I-MARITAL)

Never married Married Widowed/Divorced/Separated TOTAL
Strongly favors 9.3%
40
6.6%
60
8.0%
42
7.6%
142
Not strongly favors 8.3%
36
5.1%
47
6.5%
34
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 26.4%
114
21.5%
196
21.9%
115
22.7%
425
Strongly opposes 48.1%
208
58.4%
533
53.8%
283
54.7%
1024
Don't know 6.9%
30
7.3%
67
9.1%
48
7.7%
145
No answer 0.9%
4
1.1%
10
0.8%
4
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
432
100.0%
913
100.0%
526

1871


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 years 30-39 years 40-49 years 50-64 years More than 65 years TOTAL
Strongly favors 9.0%
31
5.9%
28
10.1%
38
8.0%
29
4.9%
15
7.6%
141
Not strongly favors 7.2%
25
5.9%
28
6.1%
23
6.3%
23
5.9%
18
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 28.6%
99
21.0%
99
20.9%
79
22.5%
82
21.2%
65
22.7%
424
Strongly opposes 46.8%
162
60.0%
283
55.6%
210
56.0%
204
53.4%
164
54.8%
1023
Don't know 6.9%
24
6.4%
30
7.1%
27
6.6%
24
12.7%
39
7.7%
144
No answer 1.4%
5
0.8%
4
0.3%
1
0.5%
2
2.0%
6
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
346
100.0%
472
100.0%
378
100.0%
364
100.0%
307

1867


Education (I-EDUCATIO)

Less than high school High school 4 years college More than 4 years college TOTAL
Strongly favors 7.3%
7
7.5%
57
7.0%
54
10.7%
24
7.6%
142
Not strongly favors 10.4%
10
5.6%
43
5.3%
41
10.3%
23
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 21.9%
21
21.7%
166
24.5%
190
20.5%
46
22.7%
423
Strongly opposes 41.7%
40
54.2%
415
58.2%
452
50.0%
112
54.8%
1019
Don't know 16.7%
16
9.9%
76
4.3%
33
7.6%
17
7.6%
142
No answer 2.1%
2
1.0%
8
0.8%
6
0.9%
2
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
96
100.0%
765
100.0%
776
100.0%
224

1861


Family income (I-FAMINCOM)

LT $10,000 $10K-24999 $25,000+ Ref/DK TOTAL
Strongly favors 13.2%
26
6.4%
25
7.1%
76
7.2%
15
7.6%
142
Not strongly favors 10.2%
20
7.7%
30
5.3%
57
4.8%
10
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 22.3%
44
24.7%
97
22.4%
241
20.8%
43
22.7%
425
Strongly opposes 43.7%
86
50.0%
196
59.3%
638
50.2%
104
54.7%
1024
Don't know 9.1%
18
9.9%
39
5.2%
56
15.5%
32
7.7%
145
No answer 1.5%
3
1.3%
5
0.7%
7
1.4%
3
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
197
100.0%
392
100.0%
1075
100.0%
207

1871


Region (I-REGION)

New England North Central MD/S Atlantic South Central Mtn/Pacific TOTAL
Strongly favors 6.5%
6
7.3%
34
8.3%
53
6.3%
20
8.1%
29
7.6%
142
Not strongly favors 3.2%
3
5.2%
24
5.6%
36
6.6%
21
9.3%
33
6.3%
117
Not strongly opposes 26.9%
25
25.4%
118
23.8%
152
22.3%
71
16.6%
59
22.7%
425
Strongly opposes 50.5%
47
53.2%
247
53.4%
341
57.7%
184
57.6%
205
54.7%
1024
Don't know 11.8%
11
7.5%
35
8.1%
52
6.3%
20
7.6%
27
7.7%
145
No answer 1.1%
1
1.3%
6
0.8%
5
0.9%
3
0.8%
3
1.0%
18
TOTAL 100.0%
93
100.0%
464
100.0%
639
100.0%
319
100.0%
356

1871


Political party (I-POLPART)

Democrat Republican Other TOTAL
Strongly favors 11.0%
97
3.2%
20
6.7%
24
7.6%
141
Not strongly favors 8.6%
76
3.5%
22
5.0%
18
6.2%
116
Not strongly opposes 24.3%
215
21.1%
132
21.7%
78
22.8%
425
Strongly opposes 46.9%
414
66.4%
415
54.0%
194
54.8%
1023
Don't know 8.6%
76
4.5%
28
11.4%
41
7.8%
145
No answer 0.6%
5
1.3%
8
1.1%
4
0.9%
17
TOTAL 100.0%
883
100.0%
625
100.0%
359

1867

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