General Social Survey, 1998

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


WRKWAYUP

Do you agree strongly, agree somewhat, neither agree nor disagree, disagree somewhat, or disagree strongly with the following statement: Irish, Italians, Jewish and many other minorities overcame prejudice and worked their way up. Blacks should do the same without special favors.
  1) Agree strongly
  2) Agree somewhat
  3) Neither agree nor disagree
  4) Disagree somewhat
  5) Disagree strongly
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Agree strongly 785 42% 42% -.79
Agree somewhat 538 28.8% 70.7% -.14
Neither agree nor disagree 226 12.1% 82.8% .51
Disagree somewhat 159 8.5% 91.3% 1.15
Disagree strongly 113 6% 97.3% 1.8
Don't know 43 2.3% 99.6% 3.74
No answer 7 .4% 100% 4.39

Variable Comparisons


Sex (I-SEX)

Male Female TOTAL
Agree strongly 44.6%
362
39.9%
423
42.0%
785
Agree somewhat 29.2%
237
28.4%
301
28.8%
538
Neither agree nor disagree 11.8%
96
12.3%
130
12.1%
226
Disagree somewhat 7.8%
63
9.1%
96
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 5.1%
41
6.8%
72
6.0%
113
Don't know 1.2%
10
3.1%
33
2.3%
43
No answer 0.2%
2
0.5%
5
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
811
100.0%
1060

1871


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Agree strongly 45.3%
674
22.7%
58
41.4%
53
42.0%
785
Agree somewhat 29.8%
443
23.5%
60
27.3%
35
28.8%
538
Neither agree nor disagree 10.9%
162
18.4%
47
13.3%
17
12.1%
226
Disagree somewhat 8.0%
119
12.2%
31
7.0%
9
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 4.1%
61
17.3%
44
6.3%
8
6.0%
113
Don't know 1.7%
25
5.1%
13
3.9%
5
2.3%
43
No answer 0.3%
4
0.8%
2
0.8%
1
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
1488
100.0%
255
100.0%
128

1871


Religious preference (I-RELIG)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Agree strongly 41.3%
418
47.1%
216
35.3%
12
36.3%
97
42.0%
42
42.0%
785
Agree somewhat 30.5%
308
29.8%
137
23.5%
8
23.6%
63
22.0%
22
28.8%
538
Neither agree nor disagree 12.2%
123
10.9%
50
17.6%
6
13.9%
37
10.0%
10
12.1%
226
Disagree somewhat 7.3%
74
5.9%
27
20.6%
7
12.4%
33
18.0%
18
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 5.7%
58
4.8%
22
2.9%
1
9.7%
26
6.0%
6
6.0%
113
Don't know 2.6%
26
1.3%
6
0.0%
0
3.7%
10
1.0%
1
2.3%
43
No answer 0.4%
4
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.4%
1
1.0%
1
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
1011
100.0%
459
100.0%
34
100.0%
267
100.0%
100

1871


Marital status (I-MARITAL)

Never married Married Widowed/Divorced/Separated TOTAL
Agree strongly 32.9%
142
45.6%
416
43.2%
227
42.0%
785
Agree somewhat 31.7%
137
28.0%
256
27.6%
145
28.8%
538
Neither agree nor disagree 13.2%
57
12.2%
111
11.0%
58
12.1%
226
Disagree somewhat 10.6%
46
7.9%
72
7.8%
41
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 9.5%
41
4.1%
37
6.7%
35
6.0%
113
Don't know 1.9%
8
2.0%
18
3.2%
17
2.3%
43
No answer 0.2%
1
0.3%
3
0.6%
3
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
432
100.0%
913
100.0%
526

1871


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 years 30-39 years 40-49 years 50-64 years More than 65 years TOTAL
Agree strongly 35.3%
122
42.6%
201
40.7%
154
44.8%
163
46.9%
144
42.0%
784
Agree somewhat 32.1%
111
27.5%
130
28.3%
107
27.5%
100
28.7%
88
28.7%
536
Neither agree nor disagree 13.6%
47
11.2%
53
11.6%
44
12.6%
46
11.4%
35
12.1%
225
Disagree somewhat 7.8%
27
11.7%
55
9.3%
35
6.9%
25
5.5%
17
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 8.1%
28
5.1%
24
7.4%
28
5.8%
21
3.9%
12
6.1%
113
Don't know 2.3%
8
1.7%
8
2.1%
8
2.2%
8
3.6%
11
2.3%
43
No answer 0.9%
3
0.2%
1
0.5%
2
0.3%
1
0.0%
0
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
346
100.0%
472
100.0%
378
100.0%
364
100.0%
307

1867


Education (I-EDUCATIO)

Less than high school High school 4 years college More than 4 years college TOTAL
Agree strongly 49.0%
47
47.3%
362
40.1%
311
27.7%
62
42.0%
782
Agree somewhat 24.0%
23
30.7%
235
28.0%
217
26.3%
59
28.7%
534
Neither agree nor disagree 9.4%
9
10.7%
82
12.5%
97
17.0%
38
12.1%
226
Disagree somewhat 4.2%
4
4.7%
36
10.1%
78
17.9%
40
8.5%
158
Disagree strongly 3.1%
3
4.2%
32
7.1%
55
10.3%
23
6.1%
113
Don't know 9.4%
9
2.1%
16
1.8%
14
0.9%
2
2.2%
41
No answer 1.0%
1
0.3%
2
0.5%
4
0.0%
0
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
96
100.0%
765
100.0%
776
100.0%
224

1861


Family income (I-FAMINCOM)

LT $10,000 $10K-24999 $25,000+ Ref/DK TOTAL
Agree strongly 38.1%
75
40.6%
159
42.0%
451
48.3%
100
42.0%
785
Agree somewhat 27.9%
55
31.1%
122
28.2%
303
28.0%
58
28.8%
538
Neither agree nor disagree 13.7%
27
11.7%
46
12.3%
132
10.1%
21
12.1%
226
Disagree somewhat 6.1%
12
6.9%
27
10.4%
112
3.9%
8
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 10.7%
21
6.9%
27
5.6%
60
2.4%
5
6.0%
113
Don't know 3.0%
6
2.8%
11
1.2%
13
6.3%
13
2.3%
43
No answer 0.5%
1
0.0%
0
0.4%
4
1.0%
2
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
197
100.0%
392
100.0%
1075
100.0%
207

1871


Region (I-REGION)

New England North Central MD/S Atlantic South Central Mtn/Pacific TOTAL
Agree strongly 41.9%
39
39.2%
182
45.1%
288
44.8%
143
37.4%
133
42.0%
785
Agree somewhat 30.1%
28
33.6%
156
28.0%
179
27.0%
86
25.0%
89
28.8%
538
Neither agree nor disagree 14.0%
13
11.2%
52
11.3%
72
11.0%
35
15.2%
54
12.1%
226
Disagree somewhat 7.5%
7
6.9%
32
7.5%
48
8.5%
27
12.6%
45
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 4.3%
4
6.5%
30
5.3%
34
5.6%
18
7.6%
27
6.0%
113
Don't know 2.2%
2
2.6%
12
2.2%
14
2.2%
7
2.2%
8
2.3%
43
No answer 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.6%
4
0.9%
3
0.0%
0
0.4%
7
TOTAL 100.0%
93
100.0%
464
100.0%
639
100.0%
319
100.0%
356

1871


Political party (I-POLPART)

Democrat Republican Other TOTAL
Agree strongly 36.5%
322
47.0%
294
46.8%
168
42.0%
784
Agree somewhat 27.0%
238
35.0%
219
22.3%
80
28.8%
537
Neither agree nor disagree 13.0%
115
9.8%
61
13.6%
49
12.1%
225
Disagree somewhat 12.7%
112
4.6%
29
5.0%
18
8.5%
159
Disagree strongly 8.4%
74
2.2%
14
7.0%
25
6.1%
113
Don't know 2.4%
21
1.0%
6
4.5%
16
2.3%
43
No answer 0.1%
1
0.3%
2
0.8%
3
0.3%
6
TOTAL 100.0%
883
100.0%
625
100.0%
359

1867

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