General Social Survey, 1998

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


CLASS

If you were asked to use one of four names for your social class, which would you say you belong in: the lower class, the working class, the middle class, or the upper class?
  1) Lower class
  2) Working class
  3) Middle class
  4) Upper class
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Lower class 153 5.4% 5.4% -1.89
Working class 1270 44.8% 50.2% -.64
Middle class 1292 45.6% 95.9% .61
Upper class 102 3.6% 99.5% 1.87
Don't know 4 .1% 99.6% 6.89
No answer 11 .4% 100% 8.14

Variable Comparisons


Sex (I-SEX)

Male Female TOTAL
Lower class 4.4%
54
6.2%
99
5.4%
153
Working class 45.1%
556
44.6%
714
44.8%
1270
Middle class 45.5%
561
45.7%
731
45.6%
1292
Upper class 4.6%
57
2.8%
45
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.1%
1
0.2%
3
0.1%
4
No answer 0.2%
3
0.5%
8
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
1232
100.0%
1600

2832


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Lower class 4.3%
97
9.5%
38
9.4%
18
5.4%
153
Working class 42.1%
943
56.3%
225
53.4%
102
44.8%
1270
Middle class 49.2%
1102
31.3%
125
34.0%
65
45.6%
1292
Upper class 3.8%
85
3.0%
12
2.6%
5
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.1%
3
0.0%
0
0.5%
1
0.1%
4
No answer 0.5%
11
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
2241
100.0%
400
100.0%
191

2832


Religious preference (I-RELIG)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Lower class 5.5%
84
4.7%
33
2.0%
1
6.3%
25
6.4%
10
5.4%
153
Working class 46.2%
704
44.3%
312
10.0%
5
45.2%
179
44.6%
70
44.8%
1270
Middle class 44.2%
673
47.2%
333
66.0%
33
45.7%
181
45.9%
72
45.6%
1292
Upper class 3.6%
55
3.4%
24
22.0%
11
2.3%
9
1.9%
3
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.1%
2
0.3%
2
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
4
No answer 0.4%
6
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.5%
2
1.3%
2
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
1524
100.0%
705
100.0%
50
100.0%
396
100.0%
157

2832


Marital status (I-MARITAL)

Never married Married Widowed/Divorced/Separated TOTAL
Lower class 6.5%
43
3.1%
42
8.3%
68
5.4%
153
Working class 48.7%
323
41.0%
552
47.9%
394
44.8%
1269
Middle class 41.2%
273
51.1%
688
40.3%
331
45.6%
1292
Upper class 3.2%
21
4.3%
58
2.8%
23
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.4%
3
0.1%
4
No answer 0.5%
3
0.4%
5
0.4%
3
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
663
100.0%
1346
100.0%
822

2831


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 years 30-39 years 40-49 years 50-64 years More than 65 years TOTAL
Lower class 5.8%
31
4.9%
34
4.1%
24
5.7%
31
6.7%
32
5.4%
152
Working class 54.0%
290
47.0%
323
51.7%
300
36.9%
201
32.2%
154
44.8%
1268
Middle class 37.2%
200
46.1%
317
40.7%
236
50.3%
274
55.1%
264
45.7%
1291
Upper class 2.4%
13
1.6%
11
3.3%
19
6.2%
34
5.2%
25
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.6%
3
0.1%
4
No answer 0.6%
3
0.3%
2
0.0%
0
0.9%
5
0.2%
1
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
537
100.0%
687
100.0%
580
100.0%
545
100.0%
479

2828


Education (I-EDUCATIO)

Less than high school High school 4 years college More than 4 years college TOTAL
Lower class 18.1%
29
6.7%
79
3.1%
37
1.6%
5
5.3%
150
Working class 43.1%
69
55.6%
654
41.1%
484
19.0%
58
44.9%
1265
Middle class 33.1%
53
35.5%
418
51.3%
604
69.8%
213
45.7%
1288
Upper class 3.8%
6
1.7%
20
4.2%
49
8.9%
27
3.6%
102
Don't know 1.3%
2
0.1%
1
0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.1%
4
No answer 0.6%
1
0.4%
5
0.3%
3
0.7%
2
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
160
100.0%
1177
100.0%
1178
100.0%
305

2820


Family income (I-FAMINCOM)

LT $10,000 $10K-24999 $25,000+ Ref/DK TOTAL
Lower class 21.8%
65
6.5%
40
1.8%
28
6.1%
20
5.4%
153
Working class 37.9%
113
63.6%
393
41.0%
650
34.7%
114
44.8%
1270
Middle class 34.2%
102
28.6%
177
52.8%
838
53.2%
175
45.6%
1292
Upper class 4.7%
14
0.8%
5
4.2%
66
5.2%
17
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.3%
1
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.6%
2
0.1%
4
No answer 1.0%
3
0.5%
3
0.3%
4
0.3%
1
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
298
100.0%
618
100.0%
1587
100.0%
329

2832


Region (I-REGION)

New England North Central MD/S Atlantic South Central Mtn/Pacific TOTAL
Lower class 5.0%
7
5.2%
36
4.3%
41
6.5%
32
6.8%
37
5.4%
153
Working class 40.4%
57
46.6%
324
45.4%
436
48.1%
235
39.9%
218
44.8%
1270
Middle class 48.9%
69
45.5%
317
45.8%
440
42.5%
208
47.3%
258
45.6%
1292
Upper class 5.0%
7
2.2%
15
3.8%
36
2.7%
13
5.7%
31
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
3
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.1%
4
No answer 0.7%
1
0.6%
4
0.4%
4
0.0%
0
0.4%
2
0.4%
11
TOTAL 100.0%
141
100.0%
696
100.0%
960
100.0%
489
100.0%
546

2832


Political party (I-POLPART)

Democrat Republican Other TOTAL
Lower class 6.5%
85
2.7%
26
7.8%
42
5.4%
153
Working class 47.5%
625
37.4%
362
51.7%
279
44.8%
1266
Middle class 43.9%
578
53.6%
518
35.6%
192
45.6%
1288
Upper class 1.9%
25
6.0%
58
3.5%
19
3.6%
102
Don't know 0.1%
1
0.2%
2
0.2%
1
0.1%
4
No answer 0.2%
2
0.1%
1
1.3%
7
0.4%
10
TOTAL 100.0%
1316
100.0%
967
100.0%
540

2823

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