General Social Survey, 1998

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > General Social Surveys > Analysis


GOD

Which statement comes closest to expressing what you believe about God: don't believe in God; don't know and no way to find out; believe in higher power; believe in God sometimes; some doubts, but believe in God; no doubts about God's existence.
  1) Don't believe
  2) Don't know, no way to find out
  3) Higher power
  4) Believe sometimes
  5) Believe with doubts
  6) No doubts
  8) Don't know
  9) No answer

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Don't believe 40 3.1% 3.1% -2.7
Don't know, no way to find out 60 4.7% 7.8% -2.07
Higher power 121 9.4% 17.2% -1.43
Believe sometimes 58 4.5% 21.7% -.8
Believe with doubts 181 14.1% 35.8% -.16
No doubts 775 60.4% 96.2% .47
Don't know 1 .1% 96.3% 1.74
No answer 48 3.7% 100% 2.37

Variable Comparisons


Sex (I-SEX)

Male Female TOTAL
Don't believe 4.7%
27
1.8%
13
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 6.2%
36
3.4%
24
4.7%
60
Higher power 12.1%
70
7.2%
51
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 4.0%
23
5.0%
35
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 14.9%
86
13.4%
95
14.1%
181
No doubts 54.4%
314
65.2%
461
60.4%
775
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.1%
1
0.1%
1
No answer 3.6%
21
3.8%
27
3.7%
48
TOTAL 100.0%
577
100.0%
707

1284


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Other TOTAL
Don't believe 3.2%
33
1.9%
3
4.3%
4
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 5.2%
54
1.9%
3
3.2%
3
4.7%
60
Higher power 10.2%
105
3.7%
6
10.8%
10
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 5.2%
53
3.1%
5
0.0%
0
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 15.5%
160
3.1%
5
17.2%
16
14.1%
181
No doubts 57.0%
587
81.5%
132
60.2%
56
60.4%
775
Don't know 0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
No answer 3.5%
36
4.9%
8
4.3%
4
3.7%
48
TOTAL 100.0%
1029
100.0%
162
100.0%
93

1284


Religious preference (I-RELIG)

Protestant Catholic Jewish None Other TOTAL
Don't believe 0.9%
6
0.9%
3
4.8%
1
16.5%
29
1.6%
1
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 1.4%
10
3.4%
11
42.9%
9
15.3%
27
4.8%
3
4.7%
60
Higher power 5.6%
39
8.7%
28
9.5%
2
24.4%
43
14.3%
9
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 4.0%
28
5.6%
18
0.0%
0
6.3%
11
1.6%
1
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 12.4%
87
19.6%
63
0.0%
0
13.1%
23
12.7%
8
14.1%
181
No doubts 72.1%
506
59.6%
192
33.3%
7
19.3%
34
57.1%
36
60.4%
775
Don't know 0.1%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
No answer 3.6%
25
2.2%
7
9.5%
2
5.1%
9
7.9%
5
3.7%
48
TOTAL 100.0%
702
100.0%
322
100.0%
21
100.0%
176
100.0%
63

1284


Marital status (I-MARITAL)

Never married Married Widowed/Divorced/Separated TOTAL
Don't believe 4.4%
14
3.1%
19
2.0%
7
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 6.9%
22
4.4%
27
3.1%
11
4.7%
60
Higher power 12.9%
41
9.0%
55
7.0%
25
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 4.1%
13
3.4%
21
6.7%
24
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 20.2%
64
11.0%
67
14.0%
50
14.1%
181
No doubts 47.6%
151
64.9%
396
63.9%
228
60.4%
775
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.3%
1
0.1%
1
No answer 3.8%
12
4.1%
25
3.1%
11
3.7%
48
TOTAL 100.0%
317
100.0%
610
100.0%
357

1284


Age (I-AGE)

18-29 years 30-39 years 40-49 years 50-64 years More than 65 years TOTAL
Don't believe 3.8%
10
3.6%
11
3.4%
9
2.1%
5
2.3%
5
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 6.1%
16
4.9%
15
5.4%
14
3.3%
8
3.3%
7
4.7%
60
Higher power 13.4%
35
9.7%
30
7.7%
20
10.0%
24
5.6%
12
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 1.5%
4
3.9%
12
5.7%
15
4.6%
11
7.5%
16
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 18.3%
48
15.9%
49
13.4%
35
13.4%
32
8.0%
17
14.1%
181
No doubts 51.9%
136
58.9%
182
60.9%
159
65.3%
156
66.7%
142
60.4%
775
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.4%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
No answer 5.0%
13
3.2%
10
3.1%
8
1.3%
3
6.6%
14
3.7%
48
TOTAL 100.0%
262
100.0%
309
100.0%
261
100.0%
239
100.0%
213

1284


Education (I-EDUCATIO)

Less than high school High school 4 years college More than 4 years college TOTAL
Don't believe 0.0%
0
2.3%
12
4.7%
25
2.1%
3
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 2.7%
2
4.2%
22
4.9%
26
6.9%
10
4.7%
60
Higher power 1.4%
1
7.4%
39
10.6%
56
17.2%
25
9.5%
121
Believe sometimes 4.1%
3
5.8%
31
4.0%
21
2.1%
3
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 9.6%
7
13.0%
69
15.5%
82
15.2%
22
14.1%
180
No doubts 74.0%
54
63.8%
338
56.2%
298
55.9%
81
60.3%
771
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
No answer 8.2%
6
3.4%
18
4.2%
22
0.7%
1
3.7%
47
TOTAL 100.0%
73
100.0%
530
100.0%
530
100.0%
145

1278


Family income (I-FAMINCOM)

LT $10,000 $10K-24999 $25,000+ Ref/DK TOTAL
Don't believe 0.0%
0
2.5%
7
3.9%
28
3.7%
5
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 4.0%
6
3.5%
10
5.4%
39
3.7%
5
4.7%
60
Higher power 9.4%
14
11.3%
32
8.9%
64
8.2%
11
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 4.0%
6
4.9%
14
4.0%
29
6.7%
9
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 9.4%
14
13.8%
39
16.6%
119
6.7%
9
14.1%
181
No doubts 70.5%
105
58.7%
166
58.1%
417
64.9%
87
60.4%
775
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.4%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
No answer 2.7%
4
4.9%
14
3.1%
22
6.0%
8
3.7%
48
TOTAL 100.0%
149
100.0%
283
100.0%
718
100.0%
134

1284


Region (I-REGION)

New England North Central MD/S Atlantic South Central Mtn/Pacific TOTAL
Don't believe 5.0%
3
1.9%
6
4.0%
18
1.8%
4
3.7%
9
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 8.3%
5
4.5%
14
4.3%
19
3.5%
8
5.8%
14
4.7%
60
Higher power 15.0%
9
12.3%
38
5.8%
26
3.9%
9
16.2%
39
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 10.0%
6
6.8%
21
4.0%
18
0.9%
2
4.6%
11
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 18.3%
11
14.9%
46
12.5%
56
12.7%
29
16.2%
39
14.1%
181
No doubts 36.7%
22
54.9%
169
65.3%
292
74.1%
169
51.0%
123
60.4%
775
Don't know 0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
No answer 6.7%
4
4.5%
14
3.8%
17
3.1%
7
2.5%
6
3.7%
48
TOTAL 100.0%
60
100.0%
308
100.0%
447
100.0%
228
100.0%
241

1284


Political party (I-POLPART)

Democrat Republican Other TOTAL
Don't believe 4.0%
24
1.3%
6
4.2%
10
3.1%
40
Don't know, no way to find out 5.0%
30
2.2%
10
8.4%
20
4.7%
60
Higher power 10.6%
63
7.2%
32
10.9%
26
9.4%
121
Believe sometimes 4.0%
24
4.0%
18
6.7%
16
4.5%
58
Believe with doubts 15.8%
94
13.7%
61
10.5%
25
14.1%
180
No doubts 56.9%
339
68.4%
305
54.4%
130
60.4%
774
Don't know 0.2%
1
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
0.1%
1
No answer 3.5%
21
3.1%
14
5.0%
12
3.7%
47
TOTAL 100.0%
596
100.0%
446
100.0%
239

1281

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