American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

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VCF0602

How about refusing to obey a law which one thinks is unjust, if the person feels so strongly about it that he is willing to go to jail rather than obey the law? Would you approve of a person doing that, disapprove, or would it depend on the circumstances?
  0) NA; no Post IW
  1) Disapprove
  2) Pro-con, depends, don't know
  3) Approve

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
NA; no Post IW 905 12.3% 12.3% -1.7
Disapprove 2992 40.7% 53.1% -.55
Pro-con, depends, don't know 2511 34.2% 87.3% .61
Approve 936 12.7% 100% 1.76

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
NA; no Post IW 12.6%
399
12.1%
506
12.3%
905
Disapprove 42.4%
1339
39.5%
1653
40.7%
2992
Pro-con, depends, don't know 30.5%
964
37.0%
1547
34.2%
2511
Approve 14.5%
458
11.4%
478
12.7%
936
TOTAL 100.0%
3160
100.0%
4184

7344


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
NA; no Post IW 13.5%
869
3.0%
21
0.0%
0
0.0%
0
1.8%
1
33.3%
14
12.3%
905
Disapprove 42.3%
2729
28.7%
202
21.1%
4
44.4%
24
25.0%
14
31.0%
13
40.7%
2986
Pro-con, depends, don't know 32.3%
2086
49.2%
346
52.6%
10
50.0%
27
51.8%
29
21.4%
9
34.2%
2507
Approve 12.0%
773
19.1%
134
26.3%
5
5.6%
3
21.4%
12
14.3%
6
12.7%
933
TOTAL 100.0%
6457
100.0%
703
100.0%
19
100.0%
54
100.0%
56
100.0%
42

7331


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
NA; no Post IW 10.0%
82
11.4%
173
12.8%
162
12.5%
164
14.4%
160
12.4%
157
12.3%
898
Disapprove 27.4%
224
35.9%
546
39.2%
496
42.7%
559
46.5%
516
49.3%
624
40.7%
2965
Pro-con, depends, don't know 41.0%
336
38.5%
586
32.6%
413
33.6%
440
29.3%
325
31.3%
397
34.2%
2497
Approve 21.6%
177
14.3%
218
15.4%
195
11.2%
146
9.7%
108
7.0%
89
12.8%
933
TOTAL 100.0%
819
100.0%
1523
100.0%
1266
100.0%
1309
100.0%
1109
100.0%
1267

7293


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
NA; no Post IW 14.9%
234
12.2%
449
10.3%
115
10.7%
101
12.3%
899
Disapprove 43.0%
675
41.7%
1533
37.9%
424
36.9%
348
40.8%
2980
Pro-con, depends, don't know 32.9%
517
35.0%
1288
34.9%
391
31.9%
301
34.2%
2497
Approve 9.2%
144
11.1%
407
16.9%
189
20.6%
194
12.8%
934
TOTAL 100.0%
1570
100.0%
3677
100.0%
1119
100.0%
944

7310


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
NA; no Post IW 12.0%
612
11.9%
192
16.4%
29
14.8%
61
12.2%
894
Disapprove 42.2%
2152
40.7%
656
26.0%
46
29.4%
121
40.7%
2975
Pro-con, depends, don't know 34.9%
1779
33.7%
543
31.6%
56
30.3%
125
34.3%
2503
Approve 10.9%
558
13.7%
220
26.0%
46
25.5%
105
12.7%
929
TOTAL 100.0%
5101
100.0%
1611
100.0%
177
100.0%
412

7301


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
NA; no Post IW 14.4%
245
0.2%
1
15.4%
113
11.2%
195
12.1%
91
10.8%
29
11.8%
674
Disapprove 42.1%
715
44.0%
225
37.5%
276
37.4%
649
35.6%
267
27.1%
73
38.7%
2205
Pro-con, depends, don't know 34.5%
586
42.3%
216
35.7%
263
37.5%
650
35.8%
269
33.8%
91
36.4%
2075
Approve 9.0%
152
13.5%
69
11.4%
84
13.9%
241
16.5%
124
28.3%
76
13.1%
746
TOTAL 100.0%
1698
100.0%
511
100.0%
736
100.0%
1735
100.0%
751
100.0%
269

5700

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