American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Analysis


VCF0117

1948: What is [head's] occupation, I mean, what kind of work does (head) do? 1972-1978: We'd also like to know about the head of the family. Is (he/she) working now, looking for work, retired, (a housewife), (a student), or what? (HOMEMAKER OR STUDENT) Are you doing any work for pay at the present time? (HOMEMAKER OR STUDENT, AND R IS WORKING FOR PAY:) About how many hours do you work on your job in the average week? 1980-1986: We'd like to know if he/she is working now, temporarily laid off, or is he/she unemployed, retired, permanently disabled, (a homemaker), (a student), or what? (STUDENT OR HOMEMAKER:) Is he/she doing any work for pay at the present time? (RETIRED 1980, 1982) Is he/she doing any work for pay at the present time? (DISABLED 1982) Is he/she doing any work for pay at the present time? (STUDENT OR HOMEMAKER:) About how many hours does he/she work on his/her job in the average week? (RETIRED AND ANSWERED WORKING FOR PAY 1980:) In an average week does he/she work 20 or more hours on that job? (RETIRED OR DISABLED, AND R ANSWERED WORKING FOR PAY 1982:) About how many hours does he/she work on your job in the average week? (RETIRED OR DISABLED, AND R VOLUNTEERED WORKING FOR PAY 1984, 1986:) About how many hours does he/she work on your job in the average week?
  1) Working now
  2) Temporarily laid off
  4) Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work")
  5) Retired
  6) Permanently disabled
  7) Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week)
  8) Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week)
  9) NA/Don't know

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Working now 11863 70% 70% -.61
Temporarily laid off 239 1.4% 71.4% -.15
Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work") 579 3.4% 74.8% .79
Retired 2664 15.7% 90.5% 1.26
Permanently disabled 529 3.1% 93.6% 1.73
Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 777 4.6% 98.2% 2.2
Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 202 1.2% 99.4% 2.67
NA/Don't know 106 .6% 100% 3.14

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Working now 75.1%
5527
66.0%
6335
70.0%
11862
Temporarily laid off 1.6%
118
1.3%
121
1.4%
239
Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work") 2.7%
200
4.0%
379
3.4%
579
Retired 15.6%
1151
15.8%
1513
15.7%
2664
Permanently disabled 2.8%
206
3.4%
323
3.1%
529
Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 0.4%
30
7.8%
747
4.6%
777
Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 1.4%
106
1.0%
96
1.2%
202
NA/Don't know 0.3%
25
0.8%
79
0.6%
104
TOTAL 100.0%
7363
100.0%
9593

16956


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
Working now 71.0%
10033
60.1%
1112
83.5%
71
74.1%
249
71.9%
341
0.00%
0
69.9%
11806
Temporarily laid off 1.2%
174
2.1%
39
2.4%
2
2.1%
7
3.4%
16
0.00%
0
1.4%
238
Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work") 2.6%
369
8.4%
155
2.4%
2
5.7%
19
7.0%
33
0.00%
0
3.4%
578
Retired 16.7%
2354
13.5%
249
4.7%
4
8.6%
29
4.6%
22
0.00%
0
15.7%
2658
Permanently disabled 2.4%
338
8.0%
149
2.4%
2
3.9%
13
4.9%
23
0.00%
0
3.1%
525
Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 4.4%
618
6.0%
111
1.2%
1
5.1%
17
5.5%
26
0.00%
0
4.6%
773
Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 1.2%
170
1.0%
19
2.4%
2
0.6%
2
1.7%
8
0.00%
0
1.2%
201
NA/Don't know 0.6%
80
0.9%
17
1.2%
1
0.0%
0
1.1%
5
0.00%
0
0.6%
103
TOTAL 100.0%
14136
100.0%
1851
100.0%
85
100.0%
336
100.0%
474
100.0%
0

16882


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
Working now 81.5%
1789
87.1%
3437
89.3%
2700
83.2%
2046
60.2%
1424
14.8%
427
70.1%
11823
Temporarily laid off 1.6%
35
2.1%
82
1.5%
45
1.5%
36
1.4%
33
0.3%
8
1.4%
239
Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work") 5.6%
124
4.6%
181
3.7%
112
3.4%
84
2.5%
58
0.6%
17
3.4%
576
Retired 1.3%
29
0.7%
27
1.1%
32
4.6%
112
23.5%
555
65.4%
1881
15.6%
2636
Permanently disabled 1.5%
34
1.0%
40
1.8%
55
4.1%
101
7.7%
183
3.9%
111
3.1%
524
Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 2.3%
51
2.1%
81
1.9%
56
2.4%
59
4.4%
103
14.5%
417
4.5%
767
Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 5.5%
121
1.7%
66
0.3%
8
0.2%
5
0.0%
1
0.0%
0
1.2%
201
NA/Don't know 0.5%
12
0.8%
32
0.5%
14
0.6%
15
0.3%
7
0.6%
17
0.6%
97
TOTAL 100.0%
2195
100.0%
3946
100.0%
3022
100.0%
2458
100.0%
2364
100.0%
2878

16863


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
Working now 42.1%
1084
71.2%
5910
78.7%
2664
83.3%
2168
70.1%
11826
Temporarily laid off 1.0%
26
1.9%
159
0.8%
27
1.0%
25
1.4%
237
Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work") 2.8%
71
4.3%
359
3.0%
100
1.8%
46
3.4%
576
Retired 33.2%
855
14.5%
1200
9.2%
313
10.4%
272
15.7%
2640
Permanently disabled 8.7%
223
2.8%
234
1.7%
57
0.5%
13
3.1%
527
Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 11.3%
292
4.4%
363
2.8%
96
0.8%
21
4.6%
772
Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 0.1%
2
0.4%
37
3.3%
113
1.9%
50
1.2%
202
NA/Don't know 0.8%
21
0.4%
37
0.5%
16
0.3%
9
0.5%
83
TOTAL 100.0%
2574
100.0%
8299
100.0%
3386
100.0%
2604

16863


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
Working now 67.9%
7491
74.1%
2962
70.5%
280
75.1%
1061
70.0%
11794
Temporarily laid off 1.4%
158
1.4%
56
0.3%
1
1.6%
22
1.4%
237
Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work") 3.3%
367
3.4%
136
1.8%
7
4.7%
66
3.4%
576
Retired 17.2%
1893
13.6%
545
17.9%
71
9.8%
138
15.7%
2647
Permanently disabled 3.5%
388
2.3%
93
1.3%
5
2.9%
41
3.1%
527
Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 5.2%
572
3.8%
150
5.0%
20
2.4%
34
4.6%
776
Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 1.0%
112
0.9%
35
2.8%
11
3.0%
42
1.2%
200
NA/Don't know 0.5%
51
0.6%
22
0.5%
2
0.6%
8
0.5%
83
TOTAL 100.0%
11032
100.0%
3999
100.0%
397
100.0%
1412

16840


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
Working now 65.9%
2760
70.8%
1338
70.3%
1426
72.5%
3401
65.3%
1384
76.0%
872
69.6%
11181
Temporarily laid off 1.0%
40
1.1%
20
1.5%
31
1.8%
85
2.0%
42
1.7%
19
1.5%
237
Unemployed (1972 adds "looking for work") 2.1%
90
2.6%
49
4.7%
95
3.7%
173
4.7%
100
4.7%
54
3.5%
561
Retired 21.3%
894
16.8%
317
12.6%
256
13.6%
639
17.6%
374
9.1%
104
16.1%
2584
Permanently disabled 2.6%
111
3.1%
58
4.4%
90
3.1%
147
3.9%
82
3.0%
34
3.2%
522
Housewife (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 5.8%
243
4.5%
85
4.9%
100
3.6%
169
5.2%
110
2.6%
30
4.6%
737
Student (not working at least 20 hrs. per week) 0.8%
33
1.0%
19
1.3%
27
1.3%
61
0.9%
19
2.9%
33
1.2%
192
NA/Don't know 0.5%
20
0.2%
3
0.1%
3
0.3%
15
0.4%
8
0.2%
2
0.3%
51
TOTAL 100.0%
4191
100.0%
1889
100.0%
2028
100.0%
4690
100.0%
2119
100.0%
1148

16065

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