American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Analysis


VCF0712

How long before the election did you decide that you were going to vote the way you did?
  0) DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only)
  1) Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases)
  2) When candidate announced (exc. 1948)
  3) During conventions
  4) Post-convention period
  5) Last two weeks of campaign
  6) On election day

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only) 9820 36.8% 36.8% -.99
Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases) 4324 16.2% 52.9% -.45
When candidate announced (exc. 1948) 2911 10.9% 63.8% .09
During conventions 3440 12.9% 76.7% .63
Post-convention period 3298 12.3% 89.1% 1.17
Last two weeks of campaign 2069 7.7% 96.8% 1.7
On election day 852 3.2% 100% 2.24

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only) 34.1%
4020
38.8%
5751
36.7%
9771
Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases) 17.1%
2018
15.4%
2289
16.2%
4307
When candidate announced (exc. 1948) 11.0%
1299
10.8%
1607
10.9%
2906
During conventions 13.7%
1609
12.2%
1812
12.9%
3421
Post-convention period 13.3%
1573
11.6%
1715
12.4%
3288
Last two weeks of campaign 8.0%
943
7.6%
1123
7.8%
2066
On election day 2.7%
321
3.6%
531
3.2%
852
TOTAL 100.0%
11783
100.0%
14828

26611


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only) 33.8%
7414
49.8%
1455
42.5%
90
53.6%
279
51.8%
439
66.0%
35
36.7%
9712
Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases) 16.7%
3656
15.7%
459
11.8%
25
12.5%
65
9.6%
81
9.4%
5
16.2%
4291
When candidate announced (exc. 1948) 11.0%
2415
10.3%
302
11.3%
24
10.6%
55
10.9%
92
3.8%
2
10.9%
2890
During conventions 13.8%
3028
8.9%
260
10.4%
22
6.1%
32
7.6%
64
7.5%
4
12.9%
3410
Post-convention period 13.0%
2850
9.0%
263
11.8%
25
10.6%
55
8.9%
75
7.5%
4
12.4%
3272
Last two weeks of campaign 8.2%
1794
4.7%
138
9.9%
21
4.4%
23
9.0%
76
5.7%
3
7.8%
2055
On election day 3.5%
763
1.5%
44
2.4%
5
2.3%
12
2.4%
20
0.0%
0
3.2%
844
TOTAL 100.0%
21920
100.0%
2921
100.0%
212
100.0%
521
100.0%
847
100.0%
53

26474


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only) 55.3%
1415
41.2%
2397
32.9%
1831
30.0%
1320
31.5%
1157
35.7%
1596
36.7%
9716
Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases) 7.8%
199
12.6%
731
15.0%
833
17.6%
776
20.8%
764
21.8%
974
16.2%
4277
When candidate announced (exc. 1948) 6.9%
177
10.2%
593
10.7%
593
12.1%
532
12.7%
465
12.0%
535
10.9%
2895
During conventions 8.8%
225
11.5%
669
14.8%
824
15.3%
674
13.9%
509
11.3%
504
12.9%
3405
Post-convention period 12.1%
309
13.1%
762
13.6%
754
13.3%
585
11.4%
420
10.0%
448
12.4%
3278
Last two weeks of campaign 6.5%
167
8.0%
466
9.0%
502
8.5%
376
6.7%
245
6.8%
305
7.8%
2061
On election day 2.7%
68
3.4%
198
4.0%
224
3.2%
141
3.1%
114
2.4%
105
3.2%
850
TOTAL 100.0%
2560
100.0%
5816
100.0%
5561
100.0%
4404
100.0%
3674
100.0%
4467

26482


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only) 50.4%
2314
40.9%
5017
29.4%
1507
19.3%
853
36.7%
9691
Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases) 18.8%
863
15.1%
1859
15.1%
774
17.7%
784
16.2%
4280
When candidate announced (exc. 1948) 6.9%
317
9.3%
1148
13.6%
698
16.3%
723
10.9%
2886
During conventions 9.2%
423
12.0%
1479
15.1%
774
16.6%
736
12.9%
3412
Post-convention period 8.2%
379
12.3%
1510
13.5%
691
15.5%
685
12.4%
3265
Last two weeks of campaign 4.6%
212
7.2%
884
9.4%
481
10.7%
475
7.8%
2052
On election day 1.9%
87
3.1%
383
4.0%
205
3.9%
172
3.2%
847
TOTAL 100.0%
4595
100.0%
12280
100.0%
5130
100.0%
4428

26433


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only) 37.2%
6412
32.5%
2012
26.1%
175
43.9%
996
36.4%
9595
Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases) 16.6%
2865
16.5%
1022
20.9%
140
11.4%
260
16.3%
4287
When candidate announced (exc. 1948) 10.9%
1884
11.3%
699
10.0%
67
10.8%
245
11.0%
2895
During conventions 13.3%
2298
12.4%
768
15.2%
102
10.8%
245
12.9%
3413
Post-convention period 11.9%
2051
13.9%
859
16.3%
109
11.3%
257
12.4%
3276
Last two weeks of campaign 7.0%
1209
9.7%
600
8.4%
56
8.5%
192
7.8%
2057
On election day 3.0%
512
3.8%
238
3.1%
21
3.3%
76
3.2%
847
TOTAL 100.0%
17231
100.0%
6198
100.0%
670
100.0%
2271

26370


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
DK; NA; unspecified "other"; respondent did not vote; DK/NA if voted; refused to say if voted; voted, but not for president; no Post IW; form III, IV (1972); abbrev. telephone interview; voted but DK/NA/refused to say for whom (1964-1988 only) 28.7%
1322
30.6%
633
39.2%
957
43.2%
1856
45.1%
1689
48.9%
363
38.1%
6820
Knew all along (incl.: always vote for same party; 1948 ONLY: all pre-convention cases) 18.0%
828
15.3%
316
14.0%
343
13.4%
577
12.5%
467
8.9%
66
14.5%
2597
When candidate announced (exc. 1948) 14.9%
684
14.0%
289
11.6%
283
10.6%
454
11.9%
444
8.4%
62
12.4%
2216
During conventions 12.1%
555
12.3%
254
9.9%
242
10.5%
453
8.7%
327
12.5%
93
10.7%
1924
Post-convention period 13.0%
598
13.4%
278
13.3%
325
11.5%
494
11.3%
423
10.2%
76
12.3%
2194
Last two weeks of campaign 9.1%
419
9.9%
205
8.5%
207
7.6%
329
7.7%
287
7.0%
52
8.4%
1499
On election day 4.2%
193
4.6%
96
3.5%
85
3.2%
138
2.9%
107
4.0%
30
3.6%
649
TOTAL 100.0%
4599
100.0%
2071
100.0%
2442
100.0%
4301
100.0%
3744
100.0%
742

17899

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