American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Analysis


VCF0118

We'd like to know if you are working now, temporarily laid off, or are you unemployed, retired, permanently disabled, (a homemaker), (a student), or what? (STUDENT OR HOMEMAKER:) Are you doing any work for pay at the present time? (RETIRED:) Are you doing any work for pay at the present time? (DISABLED:) Are you doing any work for pay at the present time? (STUDENT OR HOMEMAKER:) About how many hours do you work on your job in the average week? (RETIRED OR DISABLED, AND R ANSWERED WORKING FOR PAY:) About how many hours do you work on your job in the average week? (see ARDA summary page for previous question wordings)
  1) Employed
  2) Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife)
  3) Retired
  4) Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time)
  5) Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time)
  9) DK/NA/No Pre IW

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Employed 25469 59.4% 59.4% -.71
Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife) 2723 6.3% 65.7% -.02
Retired 5572 13% 78.7% .67
Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time) 7715 18% 96.7% 1.37
Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time) 1064 2.5% 99.2% 2.06
DK/NA/No Pre IW 358 .8% 100% 4.84

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Employed 75.7%
14376
46.6%
11093
59.5%
25469
Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife) 6.2%
1172
6.5%
1551
6.4%
2723
Retired 14.7%
2796
11.7%
2776
13.0%
5572
Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time) 0.2%
45
32.2%
7670
18.0%
7715
Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time) 2.6%
495
2.4%
569
2.5%
1064
DK/NA/No Pre IW 0.6%
114
0.6%
144
0.6%
258
TOTAL 100.0%
18998
100.0%
23803

42801


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
Employed 59.2%
20763
59.0%
2789
76.7%
283
63.2%
513
62.6%
922
61.5%
67
59.5%
25337
Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife) 4.8%
1702
14.8%
698
4.1%
15
13.4%
109
12.2%
180
2.8%
3
6.4%
2707
Retired 13.8%
4860
11.0%
518
4.3%
16
7.5%
61
5.8%
86
3.7%
4
13.0%
5545
Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time) 19.4%
6798
11.3%
535
7.0%
26
13.1%
106
13.8%
203
27.5%
30
18.1%
7698
Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time) 2.3%
793
3.1%
148
6.8%
25
2.5%
20
4.7%
70
2.8%
3
2.5%
1059
DK/NA/No Pre IW 0.5%
186
0.8%
36
1.1%
4
0.4%
3
0.9%
13
1.8%
2
0.6%
244
TOTAL 100.0%
35102
100.0%
4724
100.0%
369
100.0%
812
100.0%
1474
100.0%
109

42590


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
Employed 63.3%
2672
70.9%
6591
75.8%
6728
74.0%
5132
56.2%
3324
12.8%
945
59.6%
25392
Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife) 9.0%
379
6.3%
585
6.0%
529
6.7%
462
9.0%
534
3.1%
226
6.4%
2715
Retired 0.1%
5
0.1%
8
0.3%
27
1.9%
135
15.1%
893
60.7%
4470
13.0%
5538
Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time) 13.6%
573
20.2%
1874
16.6%
1473
16.2%
1126
18.1%
1068
21.0%
1550
18.0%
7664
Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time) 13.6%
576
2.1%
198
0.6%
52
0.5%
34
0.9%
55
2.0%
145
2.5%
1060
DK/NA/No Pre IW 0.4%
18
0.4%
34
0.8%
68
0.6%
45
0.7%
39
0.4%
33
0.6%
237
TOTAL 100.0%
4223
100.0%
9290
100.0%
8877
100.0%
6934
100.0%
5913
100.0%
7369

42606


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
Employed 39.2%
2516
57.1%
11289
66.5%
5704
75.6%
5802
59.6%
25311
Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife) 8.3%
533
7.6%
1511
5.1%
435
3.0%
228
6.4%
2707
Retired 25.6%
1641
11.5%
2277
9.3%
796
10.1%
777
12.9%
5491
Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time) 26.3%
1687
21.8%
4317
12.1%
1037
8.2%
630
18.1%
7671
Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time) 0.3%
22
1.5%
291
6.5%
556
2.4%
184
2.5%
1053
DK/NA/No Pre IW 0.3%
19
0.5%
89
0.6%
52
0.8%
58
0.5%
218
TOTAL 100.0%
6418
100.0%
19774
100.0%
8580
100.0%
7679

42451


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
Employed 57.8%
15801
61.1%
6133
59.7%
610
67.8%
2723
59.6%
25267
Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife) 6.5%
1773
5.6%
563
3.0%
31
8.5%
341
6.4%
2708
Retired 13.7%
3745
12.3%
1238
13.6%
139
9.9%
396
13.0%
5518
Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time) 19.5%
5329
17.9%
1792
19.2%
196
8.6%
345
18.1%
7662
Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time) 2.1%
575
2.5%
255
3.8%
39
4.5%
182
2.5%
1051
DK/NA/No Pre IW 0.5%
125
0.5%
51
0.7%
7
0.7%
28
0.5%
211
TOTAL 100.0%
27348
100.0%
10032
100.0%
1022
100.0%
4015

42417


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
Employed 53.0%
4690
61.5%
2276
63.3%
2841
64.5%
5024
60.8%
4168
69.0%
963
60.3%
19962
Not employed: laid off, unemployed, on strike, permanently disabled, other (Exc.: retired, student, housewife) 5.4%
482
6.1%
227
8.9%
400
8.1%
631
9.5%
650
9.7%
136
7.6%
2526
Retired 19.0%
1679
14.0%
519
10.6%
478
11.4%
888
14.7%
1006
8.3%
116
14.2%
4686
Homemaker (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1968-1970: if identifies self as "housewife"; 1956-1964: not working at all; 1952: not working full time) 19.4%
1721
14.9%
553
13.0%
585
13.2%
1030
11.0%
752
8.2%
115
14.4%
4756
Student (since 1972: not working 20 or more hrs/wk; 1970: if identifies self as "student"; 1968: if identifies self as student -- unless working full time days [coded "employed"]; 1956-1964: full or part time day student, working or not; 1952: not employed full time) 2.7%
236
2.9%
109
3.6%
162
2.6%
203
3.3%
223
4.6%
64
3.0%
997
DK/NA/No Pre IW 0.5%
42
0.5%
18
0.6%
25
0.2%
18
0.8%
56
0.1%
1
0.5%
160
TOTAL 100.0%
8850
100.0%
3702
100.0%
4491
100.0%
7794
100.0%
6855
100.0%
1395

33087

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