American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Analysis


VCF0867A

What about your opinion--are you for or against preferential hiring and promotion of blacks? (IF FAVOR:) Do you favor preference in hiring and promotion strongly or not strongly? (IF OPPOSE:) Do you oppose preference in hiring and promotion strongly or not strongly?
  1) Favor strongly
  2) Favor not strongly
  4) Oppose not strongly
  5) Oppose strongly
  7) DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867)
  8) Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly
  9) NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Favor strongly 1222 8.5% 8.5% -1.83
Favor not strongly 834 5.8% 14.2% -1.4
Oppose not strongly 2208 15.3% 29.5% -.53
Oppose strongly 6695 46.3% 75.9% -.09
DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867) 691 4.8% 80.6% .78
Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly 16 .1% 80.7% 1.22
NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW 2782 19.3% 100% 1.65

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Favor strongly 7.2%
470
9.5%
752
8.5%
1222
Favor not strongly 5.8%
381
5.7%
453
5.8%
834
Oppose not strongly 15.1%
988
15.4%
1220
15.3%
2208
Oppose strongly 48.8%
3193
44.3%
3502
46.3%
6695
DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867) 3.8%
251
5.6%
440
4.8%
691
Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly 0.0%
1
0.2%
15
0.1%
16
NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW 19.2%
1254
19.3%
1528
19.3%
2782
TOTAL 100.0%
6538
100.0%
7910

14448


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
Favor strongly 3.9%
425
33.8%
634
7.9%
20
6.4%
29
11.5%
103
0.00%
0
8.5%
1211
Favor not strongly 5.1%
554
8.4%
157
7.5%
19
4.2%
19
8.1%
73
0.00%
0
5.7%
822
Oppose not strongly 15.9%
1728
11.2%
210
19.3%
49
11.1%
50
17.4%
156
0.00%
0
15.3%
2193
Oppose strongly 52.3%
5670
17.2%
322
39.0%
99
54.0%
243
32.7%
294
0.00%
0
46.3%
6628
DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867) 4.0%
430
7.7%
145
7.5%
19
4.4%
20
7.6%
68
0.00%
0
4.8%
682
Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly 0.1%
11
0.1%
2
0.4%
1
0.0%
0
0.2%
2
0.00%
0
0.1%
16
NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW 18.7%
2023
21.5%
403
18.5%
47
19.8%
89
22.6%
203
0.00%
0
19.3%
2765
TOTAL 100.0%
10841
100.0%
1873
100.0%
254
100.0%
450
100.0%
899
100.0%
0

14317


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
Favor strongly 11.1%
157
8.1%
248
8.3%
267
7.5%
168
10.3%
187
7.2%
192
8.5%
1219
Favor not strongly 8.0%
113
6.2%
190
5.5%
178
5.9%
131
5.6%
103
4.5%
119
5.8%
834
Oppose not strongly 16.7%
235
16.4%
504
15.4%
494
14.6%
325
13.2%
240
15.2%
405
15.3%
2203
Oppose strongly 34.8%
490
44.6%
1369
48.5%
1561
49.3%
1101
49.2%
898
47.2%
1261
46.3%
6680
DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867) 5.1%
72
3.6%
110
4.3%
137
5.1%
113
5.0%
92
6.1%
164
4.8%
688
Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly 0.1%
1
0.0%
1
0.0%
1
0.0%
1
0.2%
4
0.3%
8
0.1%
16
NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW 24.2%
341
21.0%
645
18.0%
578
17.6%
393
16.4%
300
19.5%
521
19.3%
2778
TOTAL 100.0%
1409
100.0%
3067
100.0%
3216
100.0%
2232
100.0%
1824
100.0%
2670

14418


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
Favor strongly 15.4%
138
9.9%
606
6.3%
231
6.6%
234
8.5%
1209
Favor not strongly 7.2%
65
5.2%
317
4.6%
170
7.8%
278
5.8%
830
Oppose not strongly 11.0%
99
14.6%
894
15.3%
563
17.9%
637
15.4%
2193
Oppose strongly 29.1%
262
43.9%
2686
52.5%
1934
48.3%
1725
46.3%
6607
DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867) 9.3%
84
4.8%
296
4.0%
149
4.2%
151
4.8%
680
Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly 0.3%
3
0.1%
4
0.2%
6
0.1%
3
0.1%
16
NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW 27.6%
248
21.5%
1317
17.2%
633
15.1%
540
19.2%
2738
TOTAL 100.0%
899
100.0%
6120
100.0%
3686
100.0%
3568

14273


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
Favor strongly 9.3%
782
6.5%
233
5.9%
17
8.4%
171
8.4%
1203
Favor not strongly 5.2%
435
6.1%
219
3.5%
10
8.1%
166
5.8%
830
Oppose not strongly 14.3%
1200
16.9%
603
18.3%
53
16.9%
345
15.4%
2201
Oppose strongly 46.8%
3928
47.2%
1683
48.4%
140
43.9%
897
46.5%
6648
DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867) 4.6%
385
4.6%
163
4.5%
13
5.6%
114
4.7%
675
Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly 0.1%
11
0.1%
4
0.0%
0
0.0%
1
0.1%
16
NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW 19.8%
1661
18.5%
658
19.4%
56
17.0%
348
19.0%
2723
TOTAL 100.0%
8402
100.0%
3563
100.0%
289
100.0%
2042

14296


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
Favor strongly 8.4%
319
8.6%
141
10.6%
212
7.3%
186
8.2%
344
5.0%
9
8.5%
1211
Favor not strongly 5.1%
193
5.9%
96
6.0%
120
5.4%
138
6.5%
271
7.7%
14
5.8%
832
Oppose not strongly 15.2%
576
15.0%
245
15.1%
302
14.4%
366
16.7%
698
9.4%
17
15.4%
2204
Oppose strongly 47.8%
1813
47.8%
781
44.8%
893
45.7%
1160
47.0%
1961
23.8%
43
46.5%
6651
DK if favor/oppose; 1990-1994: refused; 1996 and later: other (in VCF0867) 4.8%
182
4.4%
72
5.0%
100
4.2%
107
5.1%
212
3.9%
7
4.8%
680
Favor/oppose but DK if strongly or not strongly 0.2%
6
0.2%
4
0.1%
2
0.1%
2
0.0%
2
0.0%
0
0.1%
16
NA if strongly or not strongly; NA whether favor or oppose (VCF0867); Form A (1986); form B (1990); no Post IW 18.5%
703
18.1%
295
18.3%
366
22.8%
579
16.5%
687
50.3%
91
19.0%
2721
TOTAL 100.0%
3792
100.0%
1634
100.0%
1995
100.0%
2538
100.0%
4175
100.0%
181

14315

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