American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Analysis


VCF0978

Do you happen to know if [candidate in district where only 1 candidate ran] / either [first candidate in district where 2 candidates ran] or [second candidate in district where 2 candidates ran] was already in the U.S. House of Representatives before the election? (IF YES AND 2 MAJOR PARTY CANDIDATES IN DISTRICT:) Which {candidate} was that? (see ARDA summary page for previous question wordings)
  1) CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition]
  2) INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition]
  9) DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992)

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 16510 57.4% 57.4% -.8
INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 1339 4.7% 62.1% -.54
DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992) 10891 37.9% 100% 1.28

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 61.6%
7883
54.1%
8627
57.4%
16510
INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 4.6%
585
4.7%
754
4.7%
1339
DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992) 33.9%
4339
41.1%
6552
37.9%
10891
TOTAL 100.0%
12807
100.0%
15933

28740


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 61.3%
14117
40.0%
1344
44.1%
124
55.0%
344
40.5%
491
21.0%
13
57.5%
16433
INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 4.6%
1059
5.1%
172
3.9%
11
6.1%
38
3.8%
46
3.2%
2
4.6%
1328
DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992) 34.1%
7869
54.9%
1842
52.0%
146
38.9%
243
55.7%
674
75.8%
47
37.9%
10821
TOTAL 100.0%
23045
100.0%
3358
100.0%
281
100.0%
625
100.0%
1211
100.0%
62

28582


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 38.7%
1134
51.8%
3282
60.9%
3760
63.7%
2828
63.9%
2394
60.9%
3067
57.5%
16465
INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 5.6%
164
4.3%
273
4.6%
285
4.6%
206
4.2%
158
5.0%
251
4.7%
1337
DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992) 55.7%
1631
43.9%
2781
34.4%
2125
31.6%
1404
31.8%
1192
34.1%
1717
37.9%
10850
TOTAL 100.0%
2929
100.0%
6336
100.0%
6170
100.0%
4438
100.0%
3744
100.0%
5035

28652


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 43.4%
1504
53.4%
7109
61.5%
3797
72.0%
3961
57.5%
16371
INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 3.8%
132
4.7%
627
5.3%
330
4.3%
238
4.7%
1327
DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992) 52.8%
1827
41.9%
5581
33.2%
2047
23.7%
1303
37.8%
10758
TOTAL 100.0%
3463
100.0%
13317
100.0%
6174
100.0%
5502

28456


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 58.9%
10584
56.4%
3861
64.0%
419
51.3%
1548
57.6%
16412
INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 4.5%
808
5.2%
353
4.9%
32
4.6%
139
4.7%
1332
DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992) 36.7%
6592
38.5%
2634
31.1%
204
44.0%
1328
37.7%
10758
TOTAL 100.0%
17984
100.0%
6848
100.0%
655
100.0%
3015

28502


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
CORRECT: correct incumbency status; correct candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 64.4%
3807
61.7%
1584
52.2%
1588
56.7%
2888
52.6%
2636
52.9%
523
57.6%
13026
INCORRECT: incorrect incumbency status; incorrect candidate [districts w/incumbents running with major party opposition] 4.7%
279
5.1%
132
5.0%
152
4.8%
243
5.1%
257
3.5%
35
4.9%
1098
DK if incumbent; DK which is incumbent; NA if incumbent; NA which is incumbent; no major party candidate running; no Post IW; abbrev. telephone IW (1984); Washington D.C.; short form (1992) 30.9%
1830
33.2%
851
42.8%
1303
38.5%
1959
42.3%
2121
43.6%
431
37.6%
8495
TOTAL 100.0%
5916
100.0%
2567
100.0%
3043
100.0%
5090
100.0%
5014
100.0%
989

22619

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