American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Analysis


VCF0148A

Most people say they belong either to the middle class or the working class. Do you ever think of yourself as belonging in one of these classes? (IF YES:) Which one? (IF NO:) Well, if you had to make a choice, would you call yourself middle class or working class? Would you say that you are about average middle/working class or that you are in the upper part of the middle/working class?
  1) Average working
  2) Working--NA average or upper
  3) Upper working
  4) Average middle
  5) Middle class--NA average or upper
  6) Upper middle
  9) Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class")

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Average working 13635 35.9% 35.9% -1.02
Working--NA average or upper 3088 8.1% 44.1% -.54
Upper working 2854 7.5% 51.6% -.06
Average middle 11156 29.4% 81% .42
Middle class--NA average or upper 2342 6.2% 87.2% .9
Upper middle 3261 8.6% 95.8% 1.38
Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class") 1599 4.2% 100% 2.82

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Average working 36.3%
6086
35.7%
7549
35.9%
13635
Working--NA average or upper 8.4%
1417
7.9%
1671
8.1%
3088
Upper working 9.7%
1620
5.8%
1234
7.5%
2854
Average middle 27.0%
4530
31.3%
6626
29.4%
11156
Middle class--NA average or upper 6.0%
1010
6.3%
1332
6.2%
2342
Upper middle 9.1%
1526
8.2%
1735
8.6%
3261
Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class") 3.5%
584
4.8%
1015
4.2%
1599
TOTAL 100.0%
16773
100.0%
21162

37935


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
Average working 33.2%
10386
52.3%
2195
33.9%
99
47.0%
324
43.3%
509
58.2%
57
35.9%
13570
Working--NA average or upper 7.7%
2406
12.5%
526
4.1%
12
6.7%
46
6.6%
78
16.3%
16
8.2%
3084
Upper working 7.5%
2345
7.1%
300
7.2%
21
8.1%
56
9.2%
108
3.1%
3
7.5%
2833
Average middle 31.3%
9798
16.9%
708
36.0%
105
23.9%
165
27.7%
325
12.2%
12
29.4%
11113
Middle class--NA average or upper 6.8%
2126
3.2%
133
3.8%
11
3.3%
23
3.6%
42
4.1%
4
6.2%
2339
Upper middle 9.7%
3035
2.1%
90
10.6%
31
6.8%
47
3.7%
43
2.0%
2
8.6%
3248
Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class") 3.9%
1208
5.8%
244
4.5%
13
4.1%
28
6.0%
70
4.1%
4
4.2%
1567
TOTAL 100.0%
31304
100.0%
4196
100.0%
292
100.0%
689
100.0%
1175
100.0%
98

37754


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
Average working 40.7%
1588
37.6%
3146
33.9%
2598
35.1%
2135
36.0%
1880
34.5%
2248
36.0%
13595
Working--NA average or upper 6.9%
271
8.6%
717
8.3%
638
8.7%
530
8.3%
434
7.5%
490
8.2%
3080
Upper working 6.7%
263
8.2%
690
8.1%
621
7.9%
481
7.7%
402
6.0%
388
7.5%
2845
Average middle 32.2%
1259
29.6%
2477
29.6%
2269
27.0%
1641
28.4%
1487
30.5%
1985
29.4%
11118
Middle class--NA average or upper 4.5%
175
5.6%
465
7.3%
559
6.6%
401
5.9%
308
6.6%
431
6.2%
2339
Upper middle 5.6%
219
7.1%
596
9.4%
725
10.6%
648
9.0%
470
8.9%
583
8.6%
3241
Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class") 3.3%
129
3.4%
287
3.4%
263
4.1%
250
4.7%
247
6.0%
390
4.1%
1566
TOTAL 100.0%
3904
100.0%
8378
100.0%
7673
100.0%
6086
100.0%
5228
100.0%
6515

37784


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
Average working 52.5%
3071
43.0%
7750
28.0%
2059
10.5%
666
36.0%
13546
Working--NA average or upper 14.0%
817
9.3%
1682
5.6%
411
2.5%
159
8.2%
3069
Upper working 5.3%
313
7.9%
1423
9.4%
694
6.4%
407
7.5%
2837
Average middle 16.6%
972
26.6%
4799
35.9%
2643
41.8%
2661
29.4%
11075
Middle class--NA average or upper 3.7%
216
5.2%
940
7.0%
516
10.3%
655
6.2%
2327
Upper middle 2.0%
120
4.5%
804
10.1%
743
24.7%
1573
8.6%
3240
Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class") 5.9%
346
3.5%
627
3.9%
290
4.0%
252
4.0%
1515
TOTAL 100.0%
5855
100.0%
18025
100.0%
7356
100.0%
6373

37609


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
Average working 37.4%
9194
34.9%
3056
11.8%
107
36.2%
1218
36.1%
13575
Working--NA average or upper 8.7%
2134
7.4%
652
3.7%
34
6.1%
204
8.0%
3024
Upper working 7.3%
1802
8.0%
699
4.4%
40
8.7%
292
7.5%
2833
Average middle 28.3%
6940
32.3%
2831
38.1%
347
29.2%
984
29.5%
11102
Middle class--NA average or upper 6.2%
1522
6.2%
539
9.7%
88
4.9%
166
6.2%
2315
Upper middle 8.1%
1989
8.0%
698
28.0%
255
9.1%
306
8.6%
3248
Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class") 4.0%
975
3.3%
288
4.3%
39
5.9%
197
4.0%
1499
TOTAL 100.0%
24556
100.0%
8763
100.0%
910
100.0%
3367

37596


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
Average working 34.9%
2697
34.4%
1075
39.6%
1521
37.6%
2680
40.2%
2228
33.6%
469
37.1%
10670
Working--NA average or upper 4.3%
330
4.7%
146
4.7%
180
5.4%
387
3.5%
196
7.7%
107
4.7%
1346
Upper working 7.3%
565
6.7%
210
7.8%
300
8.8%
626
8.4%
465
10.0%
139
8.0%
2305
Average middle 35.4%
2734
34.5%
1079
31.9%
1225
30.1%
2146
30.7%
1703
27.2%
380
32.2%
9267
Middle class--NA average or upper 4.9%
380
4.9%
152
4.0%
152
4.4%
314
3.0%
168
7.4%
103
4.4%
1269
Upper middle 9.1%
701
10.6%
333
8.8%
338
10.2%
725
9.7%
537
8.2%
114
9.6%
2748
Don't know; NA; other (incl. "refused to accept idea of class") 4.1%
320
4.2%
132
3.4%
129
3.5%
249
4.4%
243
5.9%
83
4.0%
1156
TOTAL 100.0%
7727
100.0%
3127
100.0%
3845
100.0%
7127
100.0%
5540
100.0%
1395

28761

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