American National Election Studies, Cumulative Data File, 1948-2004

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Analysis


VCF0149

Most people say they belong either to the middle class or the working class. Do you ever think of yourself as belonging in one of these classes? (IF YES:) Which one? (IF NO:) Well, if you had to make a choice, would you call yourself middle class or working class?
  1) Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class
  2) No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle
  3) Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class
  4) No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working
  5) Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968)
  6) Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class")
  9) Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992)

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class 12283 32.4% 32.4% -1.01
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle 4363 11.5% 43.9% -.4
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class 12705 33.5% 77.4% .22
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working 6715 17.7% 95.1% .84
Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968) 285 .8% 95.8% 1.46
Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class") 535 1.4% 97.2% 2.08
Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992) 1049 2.8% 100% 3.94

Variable Comparisons


Gender (I-GENDER)

Male Female TOTAL
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class 31.2%
5228
33.3%
7055
32.4%
12283
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle 10.7%
1787
12.2%
2576
11.5%
4363
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class 36.9%
6190
30.8%
6515
33.5%
12705
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working 17.1%
2862
18.2%
3853
17.7%
6715
Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968) 0.8%
130
0.7%
155
0.8%
285
Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class") 1.2%
200
1.6%
335
1.4%
535
Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992) 2.2%
376
3.2%
673
2.8%
1049
TOTAL 100.0%
16773
100.0%
21162

37935


Race (I-RACE)

White Black Asian Native American Hispanic Other TOTAL
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class 35.2%
11004
15.1%
634
41.1%
120
22.6%
156
26.6%
312
11.2%
11
32.4%
12237
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle 12.3%
3857
6.9%
288
8.9%
26
11.2%
77
8.2%
96
7.1%
7
11.5%
4351
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class 31.4%
9834
47.3%
1984
32.2%
94
37.3%
257
36.9%
433
49.0%
48
33.5%
12650
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working 16.6%
5191
23.8%
1000
12.0%
35
24.2%
167
22.2%
261
26.5%
26
17.7%
6680
Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968) 0.7%
228
0.7%
28
1.4%
4
0.6%
4
1.3%
15
0.0%
0
0.7%
279
Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class") 1.2%
386
2.1%
88
1.4%
4
2.2%
15
2.4%
28
0.0%
0
1.4%
521
Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992) 2.6%
804
4.1%
174
3.1%
9
1.9%
13
2.6%
30
6.1%
6
2.7%
1036
TOTAL 100.0%
31304
100.0%
4196
100.0%
292
100.0%
689
100.0%
1175
100.0%
98

37754


Age (I-AGE)

17-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 and older TOTAL
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class 30.0%
1171
31.0%
2599
34.6%
2658
33.5%
2040
32.1%
1676
32.2%
2100
32.4%
12244
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle 12.1%
474
10.9%
911
11.4%
871
10.4%
632
11.0%
574
13.5%
879
11.5%
4341
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class 31.9%
1247
35.1%
2941
33.3%
2552
35.3%
2147
34.8%
1818
30.2%
1969
33.5%
12674
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working 21.8%
851
18.8%
1573
16.6%
1275
16.1%
978
16.8%
880
17.4%
1132
17.7%
6689
Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968) 0.5%
18
0.8%
63
0.7%
53
0.8%
47
0.7%
39
1.0%
62
0.7%
282
Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class") 1.2%
46
1.1%
94
1.3%
96
1.4%
84
1.7%
90
1.8%
117
1.4%
527
Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992) 2.5%
97
2.4%
197
2.2%
168
2.6%
158
2.9%
151
3.9%
256
2.7%
1027
TOTAL 100.0%
3904
100.0%
8378
100.0%
7673
100.0%
6086
100.0%
5228
100.0%
6515

37784


Education (I-EDUC)

Grade school or less (0-8 grades) High school (12 grades or fewer) Some college (13 grades or more but no degree) College or advanced degree TOTAL
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class 14.6%
852
25.9%
4666
39.2%
2886
59.4%
3788
32.4%
12192
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle 7.7%
449
10.2%
1832
13.6%
997
16.6%
1060
11.5%
4338
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class 46.2%
2707
39.0%
7026
28.2%
2076
12.8%
813
33.6%
12622
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working 25.1%
1467
20.8%
3750
14.3%
1055
6.3%
402
17.7%
6674
Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968) 0.9%
54
0.6%
117
0.8%
62
0.8%
48
0.7%
281
Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class") 1.5%
86
1.2%
222
1.4%
103
1.7%
107
1.4%
518
Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992) 4.1%
240
2.3%
412
2.4%
177
2.4%
155
2.6%
984
TOTAL 100.0%
5855
100.0%
18025
100.0%
7356
100.0%
6373

37609


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Protestant Catholic Jewish Other and none (also includes don't know preference) TOTAL
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class 30.6%
7523
35.5%
3107
58.2%
530
31.4%
1056
32.5%
12216
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle 11.6%
2856
10.6%
932
17.3%
157
11.6%
391
11.5%
4336
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class 34.2%
8400
34.4%
3017
14.6%
133
31.6%
1064
33.6%
12614
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working 18.8%
4619
15.6%
1364
4.8%
44
18.8%
634
17.7%
6661
Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968) 0.7%
180
0.6%
55
0.8%
7
1.2%
40
0.8%
282
Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class") 1.3%
325
1.0%
92
2.0%
18
2.5%
85
1.4%
520
Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992) 2.7%
653
2.2%
196
2.3%
21
2.9%
97
2.6%
967
TOTAL 100.0%
24556
100.0%
8763
100.0%
910
100.0%
3367

37596


Worship attendance (I-ATTEND)

Every week Almost every week (no cases in 1970) Once or twice a month A few times a year Never No religious preference (1970-1988) TOTAL
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is middle class 37.8%
2917
38.7%
1210
33.4%
1285
33.4%
2377
31.9%
1766
30.4%
424
34.7%
9979
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose middle 11.3%
872
10.8%
338
10.8%
416
11.0%
782
11.1%
616
12.3%
171
11.1%
3195
Yes, think of self as member of class and that class is working class 29.8%
2299
29.9%
936
33.5%
1287
34.0%
2421
34.4%
1908
30.0%
418
32.2%
9269
No, don't think of self as member of class, but if had to choose middle or working, would choose working 16.3%
1256
15.5%
485
18.0%
691
17.4%
1237
17.1%
945
21.1%
295
17.1%
4909
Refuses to accept idea of class (except 1964, 1966, 1968) 0.8%
63
0.8%
24
0.4%
17
0.6%
44
0.8%
46
1.3%
18
0.7%
212
Other (in 1964, 1966, 1968, also includes "refuses to accept idea of class") 1.4%
107
1.6%
51
1.3%
51
1.3%
90
1.8%
100
2.2%
31
1.5%
430
Don't know; NA; no Pre IW; short form (1992) 2.8%
213
2.7%
83
2.5%
98
2.5%
176
2.9%
159
2.7%
38
2.7%
767
TOTAL 100.0%
7727
100.0%
3127
100.0%
3845
100.0%
7127
100.0%
5540
100.0%
1395

28761

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