Portraits of American Life Study, 2nd Wave, 2012

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > PALS > Analysis


RA_12

[Wave 2] I believe there is a Hell where people experience pain as punishment for their sin
  1) Strongly agree
  2) Somewhat agree
  3) Neither agree nor disagree
  4) Somewhat disagree
  5) Strongly disagree

Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative Percentage Z-Score
Strongly agree 580 41.8% 41.8% -.94
Somewhat agree 242 17.5% 59.3% -.26
Neither agree nor disagree 233 16.8% 76.1% .41
Somewhat disagree 101 7.3% 83.4% 1.08
Strongly disagree 230 16.6% 100% 1.75

Variable Comparisons


Education (I-EDUC)

Less than high school GED or high school diploma Vocational/technical diploma or associate degree Bachelor's Graduate degree TOTAL
Strongly agree 63.4%
64
50.6%
217
44.1%
134
28.3%
91
30.2%
58
41.8%
564
Somewhat agree 18.8%
19
14.7%
63
21.4%
65
19.3%
62
13.5%
26
17.4%
235
Neither agree nor disagree 7.9%
8
13.5%
58
16.4%
50
23.9%
77
15.6%
30
16.5%
223
Somewhat disagree 2.0%
2
5.1%
22
9.9%
30
8.7%
28
9.9%
19
7.5%
101
Strongly disagree 7.9%
8
16.1%
69
8.2%
25
19.9%
64
30.7%
59
16.7%
225
TOTAL 100.0%
101
100.0%
429
100.0%
304
100.0%
322
100.0%
192

1348


Race (I-RACE)

White/Caucasian/Anglo Black/African American Hispanic/Latino(a) Asian/Asian American TOTAL
Strongly agree 35.5%
268
67.6%
194
39.7%
89
22.1%
25
41.8%
576
Somewhat agree 18.2%
137
11.8%
34
21.0%
47
20.4%
23
17.5%
241
Neither agree nor disagree 17.6%
133
7.0%
20
16.5%
37
38.1%
43
16.9%
233
Somewhat disagree 8.5%
64
2.8%
8
8.0%
18
8.8%
10
7.3%
100
Strongly disagree 20.2%
152
10.8%
31
14.7%
33
10.6%
12
16.5%
228
TOTAL 100.0%
754
100.0%
287
100.0%
224
100.0%
113

1378


Political party (I-PARTYID)

Democrat Neither Republican TOTAL
Strongly agree 39.7%
309
32.2%
67
51.1%
201
41.8%
577
Somewhat agree 17.3%
135
18.8%
39
16.8%
66
17.4%
240
Neither agree nor disagree 17.3%
135
22.1%
46
13.2%
52
16.9%
233
Somewhat disagree 6.8%
53
6.3%
13
8.9%
35
7.3%
101
Strongly disagree 18.9%
147
20.7%
43
9.9%
39
16.6%
229
TOTAL 100.0%
779
100.0%
208
100.0%
393

1380


Gender (I-GENDER)

Female Male TOTAL
Strongly agree 43.8%
381
38.5%
199
41.8%
580
Somewhat agree 18.4%
160
15.9%
82
17.5%
242
Neither agree nor disagree 16.1%
140
18.0%
93
16.8%
233
Somewhat disagree 7.0%
61
7.7%
40
7.3%
101
Strongly disagree 14.6%
127
19.9%
103
16.6%
230
TOTAL 100.0%
869
100.0%
517

1386


Religion (I-RELIGION)

Black Protestant Evangelical Protestant Mainline Protestant Catholic Other faith Nonaffiliated TOTAL
Strongly agree 78.0%
99
69.4%
220
36.9%
45
36.7%
123
29.6%
61
11.5%
32
41.8%
580
Somewhat agree 12.6%
16
13.2%
42
20.5%
25
28.4%
95
19.4%
40
8.6%
24
17.5%
242
Neither agree nor disagree 2.4%
3
6.6%
21
17.2%
21
18.8%
63
21.4%
44
29.0%
81
16.8%
233
Somewhat disagree 0.8%
1
6.9%
22
13.9%
17
6.3%
21
6.3%
13
9.7%
27
7.3%
101
Strongly disagree 6.3%
8
3.8%
12
11.5%
14
9.9%
33
23.3%
48
41.2%
115
16.6%
230
TOTAL 100.0%
127
100.0%
317
100.0%
122
100.0%
335
100.0%
206
100.0%
279

1386


Age (I-AGE)

20 to 29 years old 30 to 44 years old 45 to 59 years old 60 to 74 years old 75 years and older TOTAL
Strongly agree 33.2%
73
41.5%
174
44.5%
178
43.8%
113
47.2%
42
41.8%
580
Somewhat agree 20.9%
46
17.7%
74
17.8%
71
15.5%
40
12.4%
11
17.5%
242
Neither agree nor disagree 25.0%
55
16.2%
68
16.0%
64
14.7%
38
9.0%
8
16.8%
233
Somewhat disagree 5.9%
13
7.9%
33
7.5%
30
6.2%
16
10.1%
9
7.3%
101
Strongly disagree 15.0%
33
16.7%
70
14.3%
57
19.8%
51
21.3%
19
16.6%
230
TOTAL 100.0%
220
100.0%
419
100.0%
400
100.0%
258
100.0%
89

1386

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