Religion and State Constitutions, 1990-2002

Data Archive > International Surveys and Data > Cross-National > Summary


The Religion and State (RAS) project is a university-based project located at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel. Its goal is to create a set of measures that systematically gauge the intersection between government and religion. This dataset examines constitutional clauses that address religion for 169 states on a yearly basis between 1990 and 2002. This constitutes all countries with populations of 250,000 or more, as well as a sampling of smaller states.

Data File
Cases: 169
Variables: 2,004
Weight Variable: None
Data Collection
Date Collected: 1990-2002
Original Survey (Instrument)
RAS Constitutions Codebook 1990-2002
Funded By
Israel Science Foundation and The Sara and Simha Lainer Chair in Democracy and Civility
Collection Procedures
Constitutions were located primarily from the following sources: the Religion and Law International Document Database, the International Constitutional Law project, the Political Database of the Americas, and the University of Richmond Constitution Finder. In most cases, these databases provided English language translations of constitutions not written in English, usually academic or official government translations. Otherwise, I translated the constitutions using Google Translate. To test Google Translate's accuracy, I compared several constitutions for which translations were available to a translation of the original document by Google Translate. While the translations were never identical, none of the differences would have influenced the codings.
Sampling Procedures
This project coded all countries which in 2003 had a population of at least 250,000 and Western democracies with lower populations.
Principal Investigators
Jonathan Fox, Bar Ilan University and Shmuel Sandler, Bar Ilan University.