Middletown Area Study, 1991

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > Local/Regional > Middletown Data > Summary


Data for the Middletown Area Studies were collected every year from 1978 to 1997. The purpose of these studies was to assess the views and lifestyles of citizens on a diverse range of subjects. The major topics included questions on life satisfaction, education, income, family, religion, and politics. The 1991 study assessed attitudes of people ages 60 and older on problems of abuse of the elderly, care giving, subjective well-being, medical care and other social issues and concerns.

Data File
Cases: 400
Variables: 89
Weight Variable: None
Data Collection
Date Collected: Data were collected each year during the spring from 1978 to 1981 and each year during the fall from 1981 to 1997 (the 1981 spring study is labeled 1981A and the 1981 fall study is labeled 1981B). The 1991 interviews were conducted during the period from October 29 to November 11, 1991.
Funded By
Dean's office of the College of Sciences and Humanities at Ball State University
Collection Procedures
Data were collected by means of telephone interview surveys. Telephone numbers of people who lived within Delaware County, Indiana, were randomly generated by a computer program in such a way that the proportion of telephone numbers within each of the active exchanges in Delaware County was the same in the sample as it was in the population.
Sampling Procedures
The sample consists of people who live within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of Muncie, Indiana, or Delaware County. In 1987, 1991, and 1995 only residents of Delaware County who were 60 years old or older were sampled. In 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996 only people who intended to vote were sampled; and in 1988 and 1992 Catholics were over-sampled.
Principal Investigators
Jerry G. Bode
Ronald Burton
John G. Condran
Stephen D. Johnson
David C. Morris
William Morris
Harry Nelson
Joseph B. Tamney
Related Publications
John Condran and Jerry Bode, "Rashomon, Working Wives, and Family Division of Labor" (1982). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44:421-426.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1986). The Political Role of Religion in the United States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (Frederick A. Praeger, publisher).

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1998). "The popularity of strict churches." Forthcoming. Review of Religious Research 39(3): 209-223.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1997). "Christianity and public book banning." Review of Religious Research 38(3):263-71.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1997). "A test of the free-rider issue." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36(1):104-8.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1996). "The election of a traditional-family-values candidate." Review of Religious Research 38(2):97-110.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1996). "The political impact of traditional family values." Sociological Focus 29(2):125-34.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1995). "Model of factors related to tendencies to discriminate against people with AIDS." Psychological Reports 76:563-572.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1994). "Pro-life and pro-choice issue voting."
Southeastern Political Review 22(3):409-26.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1994). "What relates to vote for three religious categories?" Sociology of Religion 55(3):291-305.

Tamney, Joseph B., Stephen D. Johnson, and Ronald Burton (1994). "The abortion controversy: Conflicting beliefs and values in American society and within religious subgroups." In Abortion Politics in the United States and Canada: Studies in Public Opinion, edited by Ted Jelen and Marthe A. Chandler. New York: Praeger.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1992). "Not seeing the trees for the forest: A reply to Baggaley." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 31(4):35-36.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1992). "Anti-Arabic prejudice in 'Middletown." Psychological Reports 70:811-18.

Tamney, Joseph B., Jennifer Mertens, Stephen D. Johnson, Ronald Burton, and Rita Caccamo (1992). "Personal experience, ideology, and support for feminism." Sociological Focus 25:203-16.

Tamney, Joseph B., Stephen D. Johnson, and Ronald Burton (1992). "The abortion controversy: Conflicting beliefs and values in American society." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 31:32-46.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1991). "Economic satisfaction vs. moral conservatism in the 1988 Presidential election." Sociological Focus 24(4):303-14.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1990). "Religious diversity and ecumenical action." Review of Religious Research 32:16-26.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1990). "Factors influencing vote for a Christian right candidate." Review of Religious Research 31:291-304.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1989). "Pat Robertson: Who supported his candidacy for President?" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 28:387-99.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1989). "Discrimination against AIDS victims." Psychological Reports 64:1261-62.

Tamney, Joseph B., Shawn Powell, and Stephen D. Johnson (1989). "Innovation-diffusion theory and religious nones." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 28:216-29.

Burton, Ronald, Stephen D. Johnson, and Joseph B. Tamney (1989). "Education and fundamentalism." Review of Religious Research 30:344-59.

Tamney, Joseph B., Stephen D. Johnson, and Ronald Burton (1989). "Fundamentalism and economic restructuring." In Religion and Political Behavior in the United States, edited by Ted G. Jelen, 67-82. New York: Praeger.

Tamney, Joseph B., Ronald Burton, and Stephen D. Johnson (1988). "Christianity, social class, and the Catholic Bishops' economic policies." Sociological Analysis (Presidential Edition) 49:785-965.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1988). "Explaining support for the moral majority." Sociological Forum 3:234-55.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1989). "Fundamentalism and self-actualization." Review of Religious Research 30(3):276-86.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1987). "Factors related to intolerance of AIDS victims." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 26(1):105-10.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1987). "Church-state relations in the eighties: Public opinion in Middletown." Sociological Analysis 48(1):1-16.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Sandy Halebsky (1986). "Christianity, social traditionalism, and economic conservatism." Sociological Focus 19(3):299-314.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1985). "The impact of the Christian right on the 1984 Presidential election." Review of Religious Research 27(2):124-33.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1985). "Consequential religiosity of modern society." Review of Religious Research 26(4):360-78.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1985). "Christianity and the nuclear freeze." Sociological Analysis 46(3):321-27.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1985). "Mobilizing support for the moral majority." Psychological Reports 56:987-94.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1984). "Support for the moral majority: A test of a model." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 23(2):183-96.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1984). "Religious television in Middletown." Review of Religious Research 25(4):303-13.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1983). "The moral majority and Middletown." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 22(2):145-57.

Johnson, Stephen D., and David C. Morris (1983). "Who should bear the costs for the elderly: The government or family?" Gerontopics 5(3):37-40.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1982). "The Christian right and the 1980 Presidential election." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 21(2):123-31.
Note 1
Socioeconomic index scores for Variables 15 (SPECOCC) and 17 (SPECRET):
SEI SCORES for occupations are based on Duncan's SEI and U.S. Census (Based on simple average scores for occupation, education, and income for males).


PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND KINDRED WORKERS
78 Accountants and auditors
60 Actors
79 Airplane pilots and navigators
90 Architects
67 Artists and art teachers
52 Athletes
76 Authors
75 Chiropractors
52 Clergymen
84 College presidents, professors, and instructors (n.e.c.)
68 Computer Programmer
45 Dancers and dancing teachers
90 Dentists
73 Designers
39 Dietitians and nutritionists
67 Draftsmen
82 Editors and reporters
85 Engineers, technical
87 Aeronautical
90 Chemical
84 Civil
84 Electrical
86 Industrial
82 Mechanical
82 Metallurgical, and metallurgists
85 Mining
87 Not elsewhere classified (n.e.c.)
31 Entertainers (n.e.c.)
83 Farm and home management advisors
48 Foresters and conservationists
59 Funeral directors and embalmers 93 Lawyers and judges
60 Librarians
52 Musicians and music teachers Natural Scientists
79 Chemists
80 Other natural scientists
46 Nurses, professional
51 Nurses, student professional
79 Optometrists
96 Osteopaths
84 Personnel and labor relations workers
82 Pharmacists
50 Photographers
92 Physicians and surgeons
82 Public relations men and publicity writers
69 Radio operators
67 Recreation and group workers
56 Religious workers
64 Social and welfare workers, except group
81 Social scientists
64 Sports instructors and officials
48 Surveyors
72 Teachers (n.e.c.)
48 Technicians, medical and dental
62 Technicians, electrical and electronic
62 Technicians, other engineering and physical sciences
62 Technicians (n.e.c.)
58 Therapists and healers (n.e.c.)
78 Veterinarians
65 Professional, Technical and kindred workers (n.e.c.)
MANAGERS, OFFICIALS, AND PROPRIETORS, EXCEPT FARM
72 Buyers and department heads, store
33 Buyers and shippers, farm products
58 Conductors, railroad
74 Credit men
50 Floormen and floor managers, store
63 Inspectors, public administration
72 Federal public administration and postal service
54 State public administration
56 Local public administration
32 Managers and superintendents, building
54 Officers, pilots, pursers, and engineers, ship
66 Officials & administrators (n.e.c.), public administration
84 Federal public administration
66 State public administration
54 Local public administration
58 Officials, lodge, society, union, etc.
60 Postmasters
77 Purchasing agents and buyers (n.e.c.)
68 Managers, officials, and proprietors (n.e.c.) Salaried
60 Construction
79 Manufacturing
71 Transportation
76 communications, and utilities and sanitary services
70 Wholesale trade
56 Retail trade
50 Food and dairy products stores
39 Eating and drinking places
68 General 'merchandise and limited price variety stores
69 Apparel and accessories stores
68 Furniture, house furnishings, and equipment stores
64 Motor vehicles and accessories retailing
31 Gasoline service stations
64 Hardware, farm implement, & building material retailing
59 other retail trade
85 Banking and other finance
84 Insurance and real estate
80 Business services
47 Automobile repair services and garages
53 Miscellaneous repair services
31 Farmer
50 Personal services
62 All other industries (incl. not reported)
48 Managers, officials, & proprietors (n.e.c.)-Self-employed
51 Construction
61 Manufacturing
43 Transportation
44 communications, and utilities and sanitary services
59 Wholesale trade
43 Retail trade
33 Food and dairy products stores
37 Eating and drinking places
47 General merchandise and limited, price variety stores
65 Apparel and accessories stores
59 Furniture, house furnishings, and equipment stores
70 Motor vehicles and accessories retailing
33 Gasoline service stations
61 Hardware, farm implement, & building material retailing
49 Other retail trade
85 Banking and other finance
76 Insurance and real estate
67 Business services
36 Automobile repair services and garages
34 Miscellaneous repair services
41 Personal services
49 All other industries (incl. not reported)
CLERICAL AND KINDRED WORKERS
68 Agents (n.e.c.)
44 Attendants and assistants, library
38 Attendants, physician's and dentist's office
25 Baggagemen, transportation
52 Bank tellers
51 Bookkeepers
44 Cashiers
39 Collectors, bill and account
40 Dispatchers and starters, vehicle
67 Express messengers and railway mail clerks
44 File clerks
62 Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators
53 Mail carriers
28 Messengers and office boys
45 Office machine operators
44 Payroll and timekeeping clerks
44 Postal clerks
44 Receptionists
61 Secretaries
22 Shipping and receiving clerks
61 Stenographer
44 Stock clerks and storekeepers
22 Telegraph messengers
47 Telegraph operators
45 Telephone operators
60 Ticket, station, and express agents
61 Typists
44 Clerical and kindred workers (n.e.c.)
SALES WORKERS
66 Advertising agents and salesmen
40 Auctioneers
35 Demonstrators
08 Hustlers and peddlers
66 Insurance agents, brokers and underwriters
27 News carriers
62 Real estate agents and brokers
73 Stock and bond salesmen
47 Salesmen and sales clerks (n.e.c.)
65 Manufacturing
61 Wholesale trade
39 Retail trade
50 Other industries (incl. not reported)
CRAFTSMAN, FOREMEN, AND KINDRED WORKERS
22 Bakers
16 Blacksmiths
33 Boilermakers
39 Bookbinders
27 Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters
23 Cabinet makers
19 Carpenters
19 Cement and concrete finishers
52 Compositors and typesetters
21 Cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen
40 Decorators and window dressers
44 Electricians
55 Electrotypers and stereotypers
47 Engravers, except photoengravers
24 Excavating, grading, and road machinery operators
49 Foremen (n.e.c.)
40 Construction
53 Manufacturing
54 Metal industries
60 Machinery, except electrical
60 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies
66 Transportation equipment
41 Other durable goods
39 Textiles, textile products, and apparel
53 Other nondurable goods (incl.not specified mfg.)
36 Railroads and railway express service
45 Transportation, except railroad
56 Communications, and utilities and sanitary services
44 Other industries (incl. not reported)
OPERATIVES AND KINDRED WORKERS
35 Apprentices
25 Auto mechanics
32 Bricklayers and masons
31 Carpenters
37 Electricians
41 Machinists and toolmakers
34 Mechanics, except auto
33 Plumbers and pipe fitters
29 Building trades (n.e.c.)
33 Metalworking trades (n.e.c.)
40 Printing trades
31 Other specified trades
39 Trade not specified
32 Asbestos and insulation workers
17 Assemblers
19 Attendants, auto service and parking
11 Blasters and powdermen
24 Boatmen, canalmen, and lock keepers
42 Brakemen, railroad
24 Bus drivers
25 Chainmen, rodmen, and axmen, surveying
17 Checkers, examiners, and inspectors, mfg.
30 conductors, bus and street railway
32 Deliverymen and routemen
23 Dressmakers and seamstresses, except factory
12 Dyers
22 Filers, grinders, and polishers, metal
10 Fruit, nut, and vegetable graders and packers, exc. factory
18 Furnacemen, smeltermen, and pourers
17 Graders and sorters, mfg.
29 Heaters, metal
21 Knitters, loopers, and toppers, textile
15 Laundry and dry cleaning operatives
29 Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house
46 Milliners
10 Mine operatives and laborers (n.e.c.)
02 coal mining
38 Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction
12 Mining and quarrying, except fuel
03 Motormen, mine, factory, logging camp, etc.
34 Motormen, street, subway, and elevated railway
15 oilers and greasers, except auto
18 Packers and wrappers (n.e.c.)
42 Photographic process workers
50 Power station operators
16 Sailors and deck hands
05 Sawyers
17 Sewers and stitchers, mfg.
05 Spinners, textile
17 Stationary firemen
44 Switchmen, railroad
23 Forgemen and hammermen
39 Furriers
26 Glaziers
22 Heat treaters, annealers, and temperers
23 Inspectors, scalers, and graders, log and lumber
41 Inspectors (n.e.c.)
46 Construction
41 Railroads and railway express service
45 Transportation, etc. R.R., commun. & other public util.
38 Other industries (incl. not reported)
36 Jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths, and silversmiths
28 Job setters, metal
49 Linemen and servicemen, telegraph, telephone, and power
58 Locomotive engineers
45 Locomotive firemen
10 Loom fixers
33 Machinists
25 Mechanics and repairmen
48 Airplane
19 Automobile
36 Office machine
36 Radio and television
23 Railroad and car shop
27 Not elsewhere classified (n.e.c.)
19 Millers grain flour, feed, etc.
31 Millwrights
12 Molders ' metal
43 Motion picture protectionists
39 Opticians, and lens grinders and polishers
16 Painter, construction and maintenance
10 Paperhangers
44 Pattern and model makers, except paper
64 Photoengravers and lithographers
38 Piano and organ tuners and repairmen
25 Plasterers
34 Plumbers and pipe fitters
49 Pressmen and plate printers, printing
22 Rollers and roll hands, metal
15 Roofers and staters
12 Shoemakers and repairers, except factory
47 stationary engineers
25 Stone cutters and stone carvers
34 Structural metal workers
23 Tailors
33 Tinsmiths, coppersmiths, and sheet metal workers
50 Toolmakers, and die makers and setters
22 Upholsterers
32 Craftsmen and kindred workers (n.e.c.)
18 Former members of the Armed Forces
10 Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs
15 Truck and tractor drivers
06 Weavers ' textile
24 Welders and flame-cutters
18 Operatives and kindred workers (n.e.c.)
17 Manufacturing
07 Sawmills, planing mills, and misc. wood products
07 Sawmills, planing mills, and mill work
09 Miscellaneous wood products
09 Furniture and fixtures
17 Stone, clay, and glass products
23 Glass and glass products
10 Cement, and concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
10 Structural clay products
21 Pottery and related products
15 Misc. nonmetalic mineral and stone products Metal industries
15 Primary metal industries
17 Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling and finishing mills
12 Other primary iron and steel industries
15 Primary nonferrous industries
16 Fabricated metal industries (incl. hot spec. metal)
16 Cutlery, handtools, and other hardware
16 Fabricated structural metal products
15 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products
14 Not specified metal industries
22 Machinery, except electrical
21 Farm machinery and equipment
31 Office, computing, and accounting machines
22 Miscellaneous machinery
26 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies
23 Transportation equipment
21 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment
34 Aircraft and parts
16 Ship and boat building and repairing
23 Railroad and misc. transportation equipment
29 Professional and photographic equipment, and watches
23 Professional equipment and supplies
40 Photographic equipment and supplies
28 Watches, clocks, and clockwork-operated devices
16 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
16 Food and kindred products
16 Meat products
22 Dairy products
09 Canning/preserving fruits, vegetables, and sea foods
14 Grain-mill products
15 Bakery products
12 Confectionery and related products
19 Beverage industries
11 Misc. food preparations and kindred products
19 Not specified food industries
02 Tobacco manufacturers
06 Textile mill products
21 Knitting mills
08 Dyeing & finishing textiles, exc. wool & knit goods
14 Floor coverings, except hard surface
02 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills
10 Miscellaneous textile mill products
21 Apparel and other fabricated textile products
22 Apparel and accessories
17 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products
19 Paper and allied products
19 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills
17 Paperboard containers and boxes
19 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products
19 Printing, publishing, and allied industries
20 Chemicals and allied products
09 Synthetic fibers
26 Drugs and medicines
15 Paints, varnishes, and related products
23 Miscellaneous chemicals and allied products
51 Petroleum and coal products
56 Petroleum refining
14 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products
22 Rubber and misc. plastic products
12 Rubber products
16 Leather and leather products
10 Leather: tanned, curried, and finished
09 Footwear, except rubber
14 Leather products, except footwear
16 Not specified manufacturing industries
18 Nonmanufacturing industries (incl. not reported)
18 Construction
15 Railroads and railway express service
23 Transportation, except railroad
21 Communications, and utilities and sanitary services
17 Wholesale and retail trade
19 Business and repair services
11 Personal services
17 Public administration
20 All other industries (incl. not reported)
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WORKERS
07 Baby sitters, private household
19 Housekeepers, private household
10 Living in
21 Living out
12 Laundresses, private household
- Living in
12 Living out
7 Private household workers (n.e.c.)
12 Living in
6 Living out
SERVICE WORKERS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
13 Attendants, hospital and other institutions
26 Attendants, professional and personal service (n.e.c.)
19 Attendants, recreation and amusement
17 Barbers
19 Bartenders
30 Boarding and lodging house keepers
08 Bootblacks
11 Chambermaids and maids, except private household
10 Charwomen and cleaners
15 Cooks, except private household
17 Counter and fountain workers
10 Elevator operators
17 Hairdressers and cosmetologists
31 Housekeepers and stewards, except private household
9 Janitors and sextons
11 Kitchen workers (n.e.c.), except private household
37 midwives
4 Porters
22 Practical nurses
37 Firemen, fire protection
is Guards, watchmen, and doorkeepers
21 Marshals and constables
39 Policemen and detectives
40 Public
36 Private
34 Sheriffs and bailiffs
17 Watchmen (crossing) and bridge tenders
25 Ushers, recreation and amusement
16 waiters
11 Service workers, except private household (n.e.c.)
LABORERS, EXCEPT FARM AND MINE
07 Carpenters' helpers, except loggi4g and mining
10 Fishermen and oysterman
8 Garage laborers, and car washers and greasers
11 Longshoremen and stevedores
11 Gardeners, except farm, and groundskeepers
04 Lumbermen, raftsmen, and wood choppers
08 Teamsters
09 Truck drivers' helpers
08 Warehousemen (n.e.c.)
08 Manufacturing
03 Sawmills, planing mills, and misc. wood products
03 Sawmills, planing mills, and mill work
02 Miscellaneous wood products
05 Furniture and fixtures
07 Stone, clay, and glass products
14 Glass and glass products
05 Cement, and concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
05 Structural clay products
07 Pottery and related products
05 Misc. nonmetallic mineral and stone products
07 Metal industries
07 Primary metal industries
09 Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling and finishing mills
04 other primary iron and steel industries
06 Primary nonferrous industries
07 Fabricated metal industries (incl. not spec. metal)
07 Cutlery, hand tools, and other hardware
07 Fabricated structural metal products
10 Misc. fabricated metal products
09 Not specified metal industries
11 Machinery, except electrical
14 Farm machinery and equipment
17 Office, computing, and accounting machines
10 Miscellaneous machinery
14 Electrical machinery, equipment and supplies
11 Transportation equipment
13 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment
15 Aircraft and parts
02 Ship and boat building and repairing
08 Railroad and misc. transportation equipment
11 Professional and photographic equipment, and watches
10 Professional equipment and supplies
16 Photographic equipment and supplies
11 Watches, clocks, and clockwork-operated devices
12 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
09 Food and kindred products
08 Meat products
13 Dairy products
06 Canning/preserving fruits, vegetables, and sea foods
06 Grain-mill products
10 Bakery products
10 Confectionery and related products
16 Beverage industries
05 Misc. food preparations and kindred products
14 Not specified food industries
00 Tobacco manufactures
03 Textile mill products
01 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills
06 Other textile mill products
09 Apparel and other fabricated textile products
07 Paper and allied products
06 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills
10 Paperboard containers and boxes
08 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products
23 Printing, publishing, and allied industries
08 Chemical and allied products
04 Synthetic fibers
22 Drugs and medicines
08 Paints, varnishes, and related products
08 Miscellaneous chemicals and allied products
22 Petroleum and coal products
26 Petroleum refining
03 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products
12 Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products
06 Leather and leather products
02 Not specified manufacturing industries
07 Nonmanufacturing industries (incl. not reported)
07 Construction
03 Railroads and railway express service
09 Transportation, except railroad
06 Communications, and utilities and sanitary services
12 Wholesale and retail trade
09 Business and repair services
05 Personal services
07 Public administration
06 All other industries (incl. not reported)
19 Occupation not reported
18 Present members of the Armed Forces