"The objectives of the survey were to obtain a profile of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices of members of the participating [Mennonite] denominations...to identify trends in these areas that would provide clues regarding the impact of modernization on Mennonite life and thought....There was also interest in determining whether modernization involved increases in secularism, individualism, and materialism." (Kauffman and Driedger, 1991).
- Data File
- Cases: 3,083
Weight Variable: WTFACTOR
- The five Mennonite denominations were sampled in differing proportions. Weighting was used to correct for these differing proportions. For details and results, see p. 276 in Kauffman and Driedger's The Mennonite Mosaic.
- Data Collection
- Date Collected: March to July 1989
- Funded By
- The project was under the supervision of an Administrative Committee composed of a representative from each of the five participating denominations. A budget of $70,000 was raised from the participating denominations, various church boards and several foundations.
- Collection Procedures
- A 28-page questionnaire was completed by more than 3,000 members of five Mennonite denominations in the United States and Canada. The questionnaires were administered in a group setting in each of the sample congregations.
- Sampling Procedures
- All conference-affiliated congregations in the United States and Canada were randomly sampled, with probability of selection proportionate to congregation size (number of members), yielding 181 congregations, of which 153 (85 percent) agreed to participate in the survey. A random selection of members was chosen from each participating congregations to complete the questionnaire.
- Principal Investigators
- J. Howard Kauffman and Leland Harder
- Related Publications
- J. Howard Kauffman and Leo Driedger. 1991. The Mennonite Mosaic: Identity and Modernization. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.
Leland D. Harder. 1993. Doors to Lock and Doors to Open: The Discerning People of God. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.
Leo Driedger and Donald B. Kraybill. 1993. Mennonite Peacemaking: From Quietism to Activism. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.
- Variables MENNSCHL (321) through COLLDISC (336) are questions about schools operated by several Mennonite and Brethren in Christ denominations. The terms "church schools," "church colleges," "church high schools," etc. are used to refer only to schools operated by these denominations.
Not included in this data file are scales utilized in the original study. A list of these scales, and the items used to construct them, has been included at the end of this document. In all cases, high scores on the scales represent the high position on the scale concept (e.g., high scores on Anti-Communism represents opposition to communism, high scores on Political Action represent favorableness toward political activity, etc.) When constructing the scales, the response codes for some questionnaire items were reversed so that the high score conformed to the high position on the scale concept.
- Note 1: List of scales:
Anabaptism scale: PERSECUT, NOBAPTIS, WARACTIV, GOVTASKS, LAWSUIT, UNFAITH, NOSWEAR, EVANGISM
Associationalism scale: ATTEND, SERVING, LEADRSHP, ATTENDCH, CHPARTIC, SSATTEND
Anti-Communism scale: CONTRAS, NOCOMMUN
Bible knowledge scale: GTHSMANE, EXILE, BARTHLMW, ZACCHEUS, RULER, SAMARITN, PENTECST, THECALL
Communalism scale: OTHERDEN, CHFIT, DENOMFRN, SATISFAC, DENOMFUT, PARDENOM
Devotionalism scale: BIBLESTD, PRAY2GOD, DEVOTION, RELATGOD, GODWANT, SAYGRACE, GRPWRSHP
Ecumenism scale: COOPERAT, COOPCOMM, UNITE
Evangelism scale: WITNESS, EVANGEL, TOCHRIST
Fundamentalist Orthodoxy scale: INERRANT, BLFBIBLE, BORNVRGN, 24HRDAY, GOTOHELL
General Orthodoxy scale: BLFGOD, BLFJESUS, BIBMIRAC, RESJESUS, RTRNJESU, SATNACTV, LIFDEATH
Mennonite Central Committee Support scale: HAPPYCOM, MDSBYMCC, MCCGOV
Moral Attitudes scale: DRINKING, SMOKING, MARIJUAN, ADMOVIES, PREMARSX, HOMSXACT, MASTRBTN, GAMBLING, DANCING
Moral Restrictiveness scale: RACEMARR, ADLTDVRC, OTHRDVRC, REMARRY, DRINKING, SMOKING, MARIJUAN, ADMOVIES, TAXEVASN, PREMARSX, EXMARSX, COHABIT, WARSTOCK, HOMSXACT, MASTRBTN, LOTTERY, GAMBLING, DANCING, SWEARING
Moral Behavior scale: TOBACCO?, ALCOHOL?, SOCDANCE
Pacifism scale: WARSTOCK, WARACTIV, PEACEPOS, OVERARAB, NOMILTAX, DRAFTPOS
Political Action scale: STUDYISS, POLITACT, ENDORSE, PULPITIS
Political Participation scale: VOTE?, OFFICE?, GOVWTNSS, ELECVOTE
Race Relations scale: RACEEQUL, RACESEP, RACESELL, RACESMIX, KEEPOUT
Religious Life scale: ATTEND, BIBLESTD, PRAY2GOD, DEVOTION, RELATGOD, CHRSLIFE, DIRECTSP, SALVATN, SPIRITLF, SERVING, WITNESS, GODWANT
Role of Women scale: WMNSRITS, WMNELECT, WMNORDAN
Separation of Church and State scale: CHMISSIO, NOGOV$$, CHRCHGOV
Shared Ministry scale: WNMELECT, WMNORDAN, LAYSHARE, ORDMINIS
Stewardship Attitudes scale: CHBUDGET, ALLTITHE, NOTITHE, TITHEBIB
Sunday School Participation scale: SERVING, SSATTEND, SSLESSON
Support of Church Colleges scale: YESCOLL, GOTOCOLL
Welfare Attitudes scale: NOEFFORT, UNEMPLOY, WELFARE?
Ethnic Identity scale: MENNWAY, MENNNEWS, MENNETHN, MARRMENN, MYFRIEND, NONMENN, MENNORGS, DATEOTHR, POWERORG, MENNEDUC
Personal Independence scale: SELFRELY, MAKEDECI, INDEPEND, FREEDOM
Individualism scale: PERSONAL, ADMONISH, FAITHPRI
Materialism scale: MUCHMONY, FASHION, RETIRE, GETAHEAD, SAVEFUND, NICESTUF
Moral Values scale: MORALIFE, EASYLIFE, OBEYCHUR, MYVALUE
Self-Other Orientation scale: PERPEACE, TREATOTH, OTHRGOOD, VOLUNTR, SEESICK
Separatism scale: CONFLICT, KINGDOM, NOTWORLD, NOTTENSE, CHRISTGOV
Secularism scale: NEGEVANG, CRITMESS, SCIENTST, WORLDEND, MORALOGIC, COUBTS, THISLIFE, MIRACLS, BALANCE
Women in Church Leadership scale: WNDEACON, WNLEADER, WNYTHMIN, WNORDAIN, WNCOUNCL, WNELDER, WNEDUMIN, WNPREACH, WNSCRPTR, WNWEDDING, WNCOMMUN, WNBAPTIS, WNFUNERL, WNORDINA
Marital Agreement scale: FAMILY$, RECREATN, RELMATRS, HABITS, AFFECTIO, WIFEWORK, DISCKIDS, HOUSTASK, MARRSEX, NUMKIDS
Spousal Relationships scale: MARRPROB, MARRYAGAN, HAPPYMAR
Spousal Intimacy scale: HABITS, AFFECTIO, MARRSEX
Memberships in Organizations scale: SCHLORG, YOUTHORG, HOBBYORG, FARMORG, BSNSORG, VETORG, SERVORG, FRATORG, LABORORG, LITORG, PROFORG, POLITORG, SPORTORG, PHYSORG, SCFRTORG
Charismatic Identity scale: CHARISMA, SPTONGUE, INTONGUE, PROPHESY, MIRACLES, DEMONS, HEALING, CHARISM
Mass Media Ownership scale: OWNTV, CABLETV, MOVIETV, OWNVCR, DISHTV, VIDEOCAM, COMPUTER
Women's Career Orientation scale: WNPRIORT, WMCAREER, HOUSETSK, FAMRESP
Husband-Wife Roles scale: HUSBRESP, HUSBFRST, WIFEFRST
Female Equality scale: LASTNAME, EQLRIGHT, PRONOUNS, FEMALGOD
Stewardship Performance scale: GIVING/NETINCOME