American National Election Studies, 2000

Data Archive > U.S. Surveys > General Population > National > National Election Studies > Summary


This study is the twenty-sixth in a series of national election studies produced by the Center for Political Studies and the Survey Research Center. The 2000 American National Election Studies entailed both a pre-election interview and a post-election re-interview. Hundreds of substantive themes are covered including: interest in political campaigns, attentiveness to media coverage, political participation and knowledge of the religious background of Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates. In this data file, variables 892 through 920 include indicators on religiosity, congregational affiliation, and church attendance. Local church activities with regard to politics are also included in the questionnaire. Finally, several new concepts in the 2000 study included questions designed to evaluate social trust, social networks and political knowledge. The NES/CPS American National Election Studies 2000 was conducted by the Center for Political Studies of the Institute for Social Research, under the general direction of Principal Investigators Nancy Burns and Donald R. Kinder.

Data File
Cases: 1,807
Variables: 1,868
Weight Variable: 6 (SWEIGHT), 7(PWEIGHT)
Data Collection
Date Collected: September to December, 2000
Funded By
These materials are based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant numbers SBR-9707741, SBR-9317631, SES-9209410, SES-9009379, SES-8808361, SES-8341310, SES-8207580, and SOC77-08885, as well as the Russell Sage Foundation under grant number 82-00-01, and the University of Michigan.
Collection Procedures
Survey data were taken utilizing both telephone and face-to-face personal interviews.
Sampling Procedures
The 2000 study entailed both a pre-election and post election interview. The core study replicates previous approaches by using probability area sampling and face-to-face interviewing. Prior to the election, 1006 respondents were interviewed. Following the election, 694 respondents were re-interviewed face-to-face. RDD sampling and telephone interviewing was also used to support the core study. Here, 801 respondents were interviewed by phone prior to the election and 862 respondents were interviewed by phone after the election.

NES Sampling
The study population for the 2000 Pre- and Post-Election Study is defined to include all United States citizens of voting age on or before the 2000 Election Day. Eligible citizens must have resided in housing units in the forty-eight contiguous states. This definition excludes persons living in Alaska or Hawaii and requires eligible persons to have been both a United States citizen and eighteen years of age on or before the 7th of November 2000.

The 2000 NES is a dual frame sample with both an area sample and an RDD component. The RDD frame provides coverage of telephone households while the area sample provides full coverage of all U.S. households including those without telephones. The 2000 NES data set contains 1006 area sample cases and 801 telephone sample cases.

The area sample is based on a multi-stage area probability sample selected from the Survey Research Center's (SRC) 1990 National Sample design. Identification of the 2000 NES sample respondents was conducted using a four stage sampling process--a primary stage sampling of U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) or New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMAs) and non-MSA counties, followed by a second stage sampling of area segments, a third stage sampling of housing units within sampled area segments and concluding with the random selection of a single respondent from selected housing units. A detailed documentation of the 1990 SRC National Sample, from which the 2000 NES sample was drawn, is provided in the SRC publication titled 1990 SRC National Sample: Design and Development.
Principal Investigators
Nancy Burns
Donald R. Kinder
Steven J. Rosenstone
Virginia Sapiro
Notes
Note: some category labels in the data provided by the National Election Study were incomplete.

Several variables require additional information and refer to the notes below:
NOTE 1: LIKES/DISLIKES ABOUT CANDIDATES AND PARTIES
NOTE 2: MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEMS
NOTE 3: PARTY DIFFERENCES
NOTE 4: RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION
NOTE 5: OCCUPATION CODE
NOTE 6: INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (1990 CENSUS)
NOTE 7: ETHNICITY/NATIONALITY
NOTE 8: 1998 CENSUS DEFINITIONS
NOTE 9: D2000 CENSUS NECMA/SMSA - INTERVIEW LOCATION
Note 1: Likes/Dislikes About Candidates And Parties
* indicates new or amended code in 2000
** indicates "other" codes
PARTY ONLY -- PEOPLE WITHIN PARTY
0001 Johnson
0002 Kennedy, John; JFK
0003 Kennedy, Robert; RFK
0004 Kennedy, Edward; "Ted"
0005 Kennedy, NA which
0006 Truman
0007 Roosevelt; "FDR"
0008 McGovern
0009 Carter
0010 Mondale
0011 McCarthy, Eugene
0012 Humphrey
0013 Muskie
0014 Dukakis, Michael
0015 Wallace
0016 Jackson, Jesse
0017 Clinton, Bill
0018 Clinton, Hillary
0019 Gore, Al
* 0020 Lieberman, Joseph
0031 Eisenhower; Ike
0032 Nixon
0034 Rockefeller
0035 Reagan
0036 Ford
0037 Bush, Sr., George
0038 Connally
0039 Kissinger
0040 McCarthy, Joseph
0041 Buchanan, Pat
0042 Dole
0043 Gingrich, Newt
* 0044 Cheney, Dick
* 0045 Bush, Jr. George W.
* 0046 McCain, John
0051 Other national party figures (Senators, Congressman, etc.)
0052 Local party figures (city, state, etc.)
0053 Good/Young/Experienced leaders; like whole ticket
0054 Bad/Old/Inexperienced leaders; dislike whole ticket
0055 Reference to vice-presidential candidate
** 0097 Other people within party reasons
PARTY ONLY -- PARTY CHARACTERISTICS
0101 Traditional Democratic voter: always been a Democrat; just a Democrat; never been a Republican; just couldn't vote Republican
0102 Traditional Republican voter: always been a Republican; just a Republican; never been a Democrat; just couldn't vote Democratic
0111 Positive, personal, affective terms applied to party--good/nice people; patriotic; etc.
0112 Negative, personal, affective terms applied to party--bad/lazy people; lack of patriotism; etc.
0121 Can trust them; they keep their promises; you know where they stand
0122 Can't trust them; they break their promises; you don't know where they stand
0131 Party is well-organized, sticks together, is united; members are disciplined; votes party line
0132 Party is poorly-organized/really two parties/divided/factionalized; members not disciplined; doesn't vote party line
0133 Party is (more) representative/good cross-section of the country; encompasses a wider variety of views/people; is more at the center of the country's views
0134 Party is less/not representative;bad cross-section of the country; encompasses more restricted views; is less at the center of the country's views
0135 Reference to participation of minority candidate(s)
0141 Reference to party's most recent National Convention; party's process/method of selecting presidential/vice-presidential candidates
0151 Performance of local branch of party; how they've done in this state/county/town
0161 Reference to the predominant faction that R sees as being in control of the party (NA which faction); "I don't like the people running it"
0162 Reference to Northerners/Liberals (as in control) of Democratic Party
0163 Reference to Southerners/Conservatives (as in control) of Democratic Party
0164 Reference to Easterners/Liberals/Moderates (as in control) of Republican Party
0165 Reference to Midwesterners/Westerners/Southerners/Conservatives (as in control) of Republican Party; "Old Boy Network"
0166 Reference to Christian Coalition/Religious Right (as in control) of Republican Party
0167 Can't win; doesn't have a chance
0168 Can win; party can't be beat
0169 Too big a party; there are too many of them; party is too powerful
0170 Too small a party; there are not enough of them; party is too weak
0171 Listens (more) to people; takes (more) into consideration the needs and wants of people; understands (better) the people/the majority of the people
0172 Doesn't listen to/understand the needs and wants of the people/the majority of the people
0173 Campaign tactics, uses too much money in campaigns, slings mud
0174 Party been in office too long (but use 0430 for candidate been in office too long)
** 0197 Other party-characteristic reasons
CANDIDATE ONLY -- EXPERIENCE, ABILITY
0201 General reference to him as "a good/bad man or a good/bad guy"; R has heard good/bad things about him; qualifications; general ability; reference to his "personality" ("job being done" is in code 0609)
0203 Not qualified for the office; the job is too big for him to handle
0211 Experienced (NA what kind) (see 0217, 0218, 0220 for specific kinds of experience; if in foreign policy see 1100's)
0212 Inexperienced
0213 Dependable/Trustworthy/Reliable; a man you can trust with the responsibilities of government ("trust" in the capability sense, rather than the honesty sense)
0214 Undependable/Untrustworthy/Unreliable; a man you can't trust with the responsibilities of government
0215 A military man; a good military/war record
0216 Not a military man; bad military/war record; no military/war record (but see 0719)
0217 His record in public service; how well he's performed in previous offices; voting record in Congress
0218 Has government experience/political experience/seniority/incumbency (also see code 0722)
0219 Lacks government experience/political experience
0220 A statesman; has experience in foreign affairs
0221 Not a statesman; lacks experience in foreign affairs
0222 "He has done a good job so far"; he has brought us through hard times"; has gotten things done has some good ideas; trying to do right things
0223 Hasn't done anything; hasn't produced any results (general); has not been able to get programs off the ground
0224 Has fulfilled/kept (campaign) promises
0225 Has not fulfilled/kept (campaign) promises
** 0297 Other candidate experience/ability reasons
CANDIDATE ONLY -- CANDIDATE LEADERSHIP QUALITIES
0301 Dignified/has dignity
0302 Undignified/lacks dignity
0303 Strong/decisive/self-confident/aggressive; will end all this indecision
0304 Weak/indecisive/lacks self-confidence/vacillating; "waffles"; "wishy-washy"
0305 Inspiring; a man you can follow; "a leader"; charisma
0306 Uninspiring; not a man you can follow; not a leader; lacks charisma
0335 Makes people feel good about America/being Americans; is patriotic/loves the country
0307 People have confidence in him
0308 People don't have confidence in him
0309 Good at communicating with blacks, young people, other "problem" groups
0310 Bad at communicating with blacks, young people, other "problem" groups (if communicate in general, see 0441, 0442)
0311 Knows how to handle people (at personal level)
0312 Doesn't know how to handle people (at personal level)
0313 A politician/political person; (too) much in politics; a good politician; part of Washington crowd; politically motivated; just wants to be re-elected
0314 Not a politician; not in politics; above politics; a bad politician
0315 Independent; no one runs him; his own boss
0316 Not independent; run by others; not his own man/boss
0317 Humble; knows his limitations; doesn't pretend to know all the answers
0318 Not humble enough; too cocky/self-confident
0319 (Too) Careful/Cautious/Good judgment
0320 (Too) Impulsive/Careless/Bad/Poor judgment
0334 Poor at explaining himself/his positions; doesn't answer
questions clearly; speaks off the top of his head/doesn't stop to think before he speaks
0321 Helps people in the district on a personal level; has helped R personally with a problem (specific mention); tries to do things for the people
0322 Doesn't help people in the district on a personal level; was not helpful to R with a personal problem (specific mention)
0323 Represents (well) the views of the district; close to people in the district; comes home regularly to chat and mix with people
0324 Does not represent (well) the views of the district; not close to the people in the district; doesn't interact enough with the people
0325 Keeps people well informed about governmental matters; communicates with constituents; any mention of R receiving newsletters or communications from him/her; explains matters well so people can understand
0326 Does not inform people enough about governmental matters; does not send enough newsletters or communications; doesn't explain matters well
0327 Listens to the people/solicits public opinion; any mention of polls or questionnaires; is accessible to constituents (NFS)
0328 Doesn't listen to the people/does not solicit public opinion; isn't accessible to constituents (NFS)
0329 Has helped local (district) economy; brought money, projects, jobs to district
0330 Has not helped local (district) economy; not brought money, projects, jobs to district
0331 Candidate helps the district; watches out for the interests of the district or region in general
0332 Candidate has not protected/watched out for the interests of the district (specific mentions)
0334 Located after 0320
0335 Located after 0306
** 0397 Other candidate leadership reason
CANDIDATE ONLY -- PERSONAL QUALITIES
0401 Honest/Sincere; keeps promises; man of integrity; means what he says; fair; not tricky; open and candid; straightforward; positive Playboy references (1976)
0402 Dishonest/Insincere; breaks promises; no integrity; doesn't mean what he says; tricky; not open and candid; not straightforward
0403 Man of high principles/ideals; high moral purpose; idealistic (if too idealistic, code 0416)
0404 Lacks principles/ideals
0405 Racist/Bigoted/Prejudiced
0406 Not a racist/bigoted/prejudiced
0407 Public servant; man of duty; conscientious; hard-working; would be a full-time President; good attendance record in Congress; dedicated; really interested in serving people
0408 Doesn't take public service seriously; lazy; would be a part-time President; poor attendance record in office; not dedicated; not really interested in serving people; "shallow"
0409 Doesn't use office for personal benefit; not in office to maximize personal benefit
0410 Uses/in office (mostly) for personal benefits (junket trips, big salary, other perks)
0411 Patriotic; (88) like Bush's stand on Pledge of Allegiance issue
0412 Unpatriotic; (88) dislike Dukakis' stand on Pledge of Allegiance issue
0413 Understands the nation's/district's problems; well-informed; studies up on issues
0414 Doesn't understand the nation's/district's problems; poorly informed; doesn't study up on issues
0415 Realistic
0416 Unrealistic; too idealistic; (if "idealistic" in positive sense, code 0403)
0417 Uses common sense; makes a lot of sense; pragmatic/practical/down-to-earth
0418 Not sensible; impractical
0419 (Too) well educated; scholarly
0420 Poorly educated; unschooled
0421 Intelligent/Smart
0422 Unintelligent/Stupid/Dumb
0464 Uninformed; doesn't (seem to) know anything about the issues/what is going on in the country/government (for being "informed", see code 04130
0423 Religious; "moral" (in religious sense); God-fearing; "too" religious
0424 "Irreligious"; "immoral" (in religious sense); Playboy interview (reflects on Carter--1976)
0425 Self-made; not well off; started out as poor; worked his way up; (started out) unpolished/unrefined/rough
0426 Wealthy; rich; born with silver spoon in mouth; polished/refined/well-mannered; buy way into office; use of own money to finance campaign
0427 Old hat; has run before; a die-hard; "a loser" (in the past)
0428 Someone new; a fresh face
0429 Don't change horses in midstream
0430 Time for a change (see 0174 for party has been in office too long)
0431 Unsafe/Unstable; dictatorial; craves power; ruthless
0432 Safe/Stable
0433 Sense of humor; jokes a lot (too much)
0434 No sense of humor; humorless (too serious)
0435 Kind/Warm/Gentle; caring
0436 Cold/Aloof
0437 Likeable; gets along with people; friendly; outgoing; nice
0438 Not likeable; can't get along with people
0439 Democratic (in non-partisan sense)
0440 Undemocratic (in non-partisan sense)
0441 High-fallutin'/High-brow; talks in circles; can't talk to common man; can't communicate ideas well
0442 Not high-fallutin'/is low-brow; talks straight; can talk to common man; can communicate ideas well
0443 Well-known; "I know him/her"
0444 Unknown; not well known
0445 Reference to his family (not 0457)
0446 Reference to his wife/spouse
0447 Speaking ability
0448 Health
0449 Appearance/Looks/Face/Appearance on TV; his smile
0450 Age (NA how perceived)
0451 (Too) Old
0452 (Too) Young
0453 Mature
0454 Immature
0455 Regional reference; "he's a Southerner"; "he's a Midwesterner"; he comes from the country/a rural area; area reference
0456 Previous occupation
0457 He's a family man
0459 Energetic; too energetic
0460 Not energetic
0461 Gender, e.g., "She's a woman"
0462 Racial/Ethnic attribute; "He is a black man"
0463 Sexual orientation mentioned; "She is a lesbian"
0464 Located after 0422
* 0465 Taking undeserved credit; taking credit for actions ,events, or policies one is not responsible for; Gore claiming "to have invented the internet"
* 0466 Overcoming adversity in one's personal life; overcoming handicaps, disabilities, disease, alcoholism, or other similar problem.
** 0495 Other negative personal qualities
** 0496 Other positive personal qualities
** 0497 Other candidate personal qualities
0498 References to Playboy interview--NA direction or neutral; "it's OK," "that is what the Bible says" (not 0401)--1976

CANDIDATE ONLY--PARTY CONNECTIONS
0500 A Democrat; good Democrat; typical Democrat
0501 A Republican; good Republican; typical Republican
In codes 0500 and 0501 it may be necessary to flip answers. If the R will not vote for a Democrat because they say they are a Republican voter, then the response should be coded as Democrat. The R is Republican and will not vote for the candidate because he is a Democrat.
0502 Controlled by party regulars/bosses/machine
0503 Not controlled by party regulars/bosses
0504 Reference to men around him/staff/followers
0505 Reference to his speeches (exc. 0447), campaign tactics; mud-slinging; (88) dislike Bush's stand on Pledge of Allegiance issue; all campaign mentions
0506 Can win; best choice for party victory
0507 Cannot win; not good choice for party victory
0508 Reference to linkage with other party figures (he's close to the Kennedy's; he was close to Eisenhower; etc.)
0509 Would continue/keep/follow Democratic policies (unspecified)
0510 Would change/get rid of " "
0511 Would continue/keep/follow Democratic domestic policies (unspecified, not codeable in 0900's)
0512 Would change/get rid of " " "
0513 Would continue/keep/follow Democratic foreign policies (unspecified, not codeable in 1100's)
0514 Would change/get rid of " " "
0515 Would continue/keep/follow Republican policies (unspecified)
0516 Would change/get rid of " "
0517 Would continue/keep/follow Republican domestic policies (unspecified, not codeable in 0900's)
0518 Would change/get rid of " " "
0519 Would continue/keep/follow Republican foreign policies (unspecified, not codeable in 1100's)
0520 Would change/get rid of " " "
0531 More liberal than most Democrats; a Northern Democrat
0532 More conservative " " ; a Southern Democrat
0533 More liberal than most Republicans; an Eastern Republican
0534 More conservative " " ; a Midwestern/Western/Southern Republican
0535 Will bring in/listen to the (party) liberals
0536 Will bring in/listen to the (party) conservatives
0541 Reference to the Eagleton affair--1972; reference to physical or mental health of vice-presidential incumbent/candidate; emotional stability/state of V-P incumbent/candidate
0542 Reference to vice-presidential incumbent/candidate, running mate
0543 Mondale's selection of a woman for vice-president (1984); reference to age/gender/race/ethnicity of V-P incumbent/candidate
0544 Mention of issues that V-P incumbent/candidate is identified
with or has taken a leading role in promoting: 1992--Gore's position on environment
0551 References to link with "Watergate"--positive reference to Watergate
0552 Not associated with "Watergate"--negative reference to Watergate; making too much out of Watergate
0553 Ford's pardon of Nixon--NA direction or against pardon
0554 " " " --pro; brave/right thing to do
0555 Positive references about independent candidacy; maybe the country needs a third party; third parties should have more recognition; the two party system needs buckling
0556 Negative references/liabilities related to independent candidacy; "he's an independent" (NFS); "we don't need a third party"; "he lacks backing from a party"
** 0597 Other candidate party connection reasons

PARTY OR CANDIDATE--GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT
0601 Good/Efficient/Businesslike administration; balanced budget; lower/wouldn't increase national debt; cautious spending
0602 Bad/Inefficient/Unbusinesslike administration; wasteful; "bureaucratic"; deficit budget; higher/increased national debt; overspend
0603 Honest government; not corrupt; no "mess in Washington"
0604 Dishonest/Corrupt government; "mess in Washington"; immorality in government; reference to Hayes, Mills, Lance
0605 (Would) Spend less (than other side); (would) spend too little
0606 (Would) Spend more (than other side); (would) spend too much
0607 Has brought/will bring about bureaucratic reform
0608 Has not brought/will not bring about bureaucratic reform
0609 General assessment of job he/they would do/are doing; is good/bad President; are providing good/bad administration
0622 Doesn't work (hard) at job; not involved (enough) in the work of his office/delegates too much authority to others; has chosen poor/incompetent aides; his aides have not performed well
0610 Reference to management/performance in Congress/Supreme Court/other government agency; made poor appointments
0611 He has/has not worked well with (Democratic) Congress; would/could have done better with (Republican) Congress; he kept/would keep Congress in check
0612 He will work well/better with (Democratic) Congress
0613 Gets more done/accomplishes as much/more productive
0614 Gets less done/doesn't accomplish as much/less productive
0625 Mostly approve of/happy with job done so far, but doesn't approve of everything that has been done
0615 Sympathy/understanding expressed for the complexity/magnitude of the job (e.g., President): tough job
0616 Sympathy/understanding expressed for the difficult situation ("a mess") inherited by the incumbent
0623 Doing the best he can (under the circumstances); doing as good a job as anyone else could do; everyone makes some mistakes
0617 Will face (difficult) issues; faces problems directly; faces up to political reality
0618 Will not face (difficult) issues; will not face problems directly; ignores political reality
0619 Supports the president/works well with the president/would work well with the president
0620 Does not support the president/does not (would not) work well with the president
0621 Response to/handling of domestic crisis or natural disaster--riot, hurricane, tornado, earthquake, flood, etc.
0622 Located after 0609
0623 Located after 0616
0625 Located after 0614
0626 Favors term limits
0627 The economy is bad, but that is not (necessarily) his fault
** 0697 Other government management reasons

PARTY OR CANDIDATE--MISCELLANEOUS
0701 Just like him/them (NA why); like everything about him/them; "I was hoping he would win the (nomination/primaries)"
0702 Just dislike/Don't like him/them (NA why); don't like anything about him/them
0732 Used to like him but don't now; have lost respect for him
0703 Will save America; America needs him/them
0704 Will ruin America; last thing America needs
0705 Will unite Americans/bring people together
0706 Will divide Americans/drive people apart
0707 Speaks of party/candidate as good protector(s); will know what to do; more intelligent
0708 Speaks of party/candidate as bad protector(s); won't know what to do
0709 Good for country (unspecified); trying to do good job; trying; not just out for self/own best interest; has/have country's interest at heart
0710 Bad for country (unspecified); don't have country's interests at heart; only looking out for their own interests
0711 Lesser of two evils
0718 Treatment of Jesse Jackson; didn't offer him the vice-presidential nomination; didn't use him (effectively) to get out the Black vote; weren't courteous/respectful toward him; didn't keep promises made to him
0719 Sexual scandals; reference to Chappaquidic; Kennedy's personal problems; damaging incidents in personal life--sexual escapades
0720 Reference to Watergate affair (exc. 0551-0554)
0721 The way the incumbent came to office; the people should
select President
0722 The incumbent should have a chance (on his own)/another chance/second chance
0723 (I believe in/Necessary for) a two-party system; choice between candidates; opposition; balances power of other party
0724 Vote for the man rather than party; look for more qualified man; don't pay attention to parties
0725 The opponent who the candidate ran against; the candidate was the better of the two in general; the candidate ran against someone I really dislike
0726 Splits votes; will elect wrong candidate; "spoiler"
0727 Expression of sympathy/admiration for the candidate's underdog position; trying hard against terrible odds; courageous uphill battle; "I like underdogs"; "they are bucking the guy" (keeping him off ballot, not taking him seriously, not giving him enough publicity)
0728 Negative comments about the candidate's switching parties, being a turncoat, disloyal to his original party
0729 Party selection of a woman for vice-president
0730 Mention of debates; candidate's performance in the debates
0731 Position (vote) on increasing congressional salary; position (vote) on accepting honoraria/outside pay/royalties while in office
0732 Located after 0702
0734 Non-sexual scandals; Whitewater; Travel Office firings; FBI file controversy; (Whitewatergate, Travelgate, FBI gate); Bush Jr's drug and alcohol use. All sexual scandals should be coded in 0719 (incl. Paula Jones, "womanizing," "can't keep pants on," etc.)
* 0735 Campaign finance scandals; Gore at the Buddhist temple; Gore soliciting funds from his office
0796 References to unfair/undeserved/excessive criticism by media or public
** 0797 Other miscellaneous reasons: Other miscellaneous reasons relating to image and candidate/party effect on nation

PARTY OR CANDIDATE--GOVERNMENT ACTIVITY/PHILOSOPHY
0801 General assessment of ideas/policies/stands (unspecified)
0802 Different from other party/candidate
0803 Same as other party/candidate; not different enough
0804 (Too) negative; always tearing down other side; no solutions of his/their own
0805 For government activity; believe government should take care of things; for big government; supports social programs/spending (not 0905-0907)
0806 Against government activity; believe government involved in too many things; favors reduction in social programs/spending (not 0905-0907)
0807 Humanistic; favor human beings over property rights
0808 Not humanistic; favor property rights over human beings
0809 Favor social change/reform/progress/improvement of social conditions
0810 Against social change/reform/progress/improvement of social conditions
0811 Socialistic
0812 Anti-socialistic
0813 Communistic/soft/hard-liner on Communism/apologist for Communists/dupe
0814 (Too) anti-communistic/hard-liner on Communism
0815 (Too) liberal (except 0531 or 0533)
0816 (Too) conservative (except 0532 or 0534)
0817 Moderate/middle of the road/for slow change; not an extremist/fanatic
0818 Extremist/fanatic/too far out; not too moderate/not a fence-sitter
0819 Pro-Far Right/Birchers/reactionaries; encouraging fascist/police state
0820 Anti-Far Right/ " " ; discouraging "
0821 Pro-Far Left/radicals/Yippies/SDS; encouraging anarchy/guerilla state
0822 Anti-Far Left/ " " " ; discouraging "
0823 Pro-Extremists (NA direction)/nuts/bomb-throwers
0824 Anti-Extremists " " "
0827 Pro-States'/local/community rights; better local government
0828 Anti- " " " " ; worse/weaker local government
0829 For equality; believe everyone should have things equally/be treated equally
0830 Anti-equality; believe some people should have more than others/people should not be treated equally
0831 Generous, compassionate, believe in helping others
0832 Selfish, only help themselves
0833 Acceptance of change/new ideas; less bound to status quo;
more open to new ideas/ways of doing things; flexible, innovative
0834 Resistance to change/new ideas; stick to (protect) status quo; resist new ways of doing things; rigid
0835 Has a well-defined set of beliefs/definite philosophy; does not compromise on principles; has (clear) understanding of goals they stand for
0836 Has poorly defined set of beliefs; lacks a definite philosophy; compromise on principles; has no (clear) understanding of goals they stand for
0837 Favor work ethic; believes in self-reliance/in people working hard to get ahead
0838 Doesn't favor work ethic; believes in people being handed things/in government handouts (if specific policy mentioned, code in 0900's)
0841 Keep track of/control over administration heads, cabinet members, etc.; follow through on policies; determine if programs are working
0842 Don't (as in 0841)
0843 Conditional evaluation: R suggests candidate/party cannot solve problems because not under his/their control (no negative connotations); will he/they be able to do what they say (determining factor outside his/their control); "I like what he says but wonder if he can do it" (if clearly negative, code in 0122 or 0402)
0845 Will involve/wants to involve people/Congress/Cabinet/advisors/other government officials in government/decision making
0846 Will not involve people/Congress/Cabinet/advisors/other government officials in government/decision making
0847 Separation of church and state/religion and politics--pro
0848 Separation of church and state/religion and politics--anti
0849 Stand/views on religion (church/state relationship NA)
** 0897 Other Government Activity/Philosophy reasons

PARTY OR CANDIDATE--DOMESTIC POLICIES
0900 General assessment of domestic ideas/policies/stands (unspecified)
0901 General assessment of economic policy (unspecified)
0902 Government economic controls--NA direction
0903 " " " --Pro; we need planned economy; control of private enterprise
0904 " " " --Anti; we have too much interference in private enterprise
0905 Welfare/Poverty problems--NA direction; give-away
0906 " " " --Pro government aid/activity; pro give-aways
0907 " " " --Anti government aid/activity; anti give-aways; pro self-help
0908 Social Security/Pensions--NA direction
0909 " " " --Pro expansion in coverage and/or increase in benefits
0910 " " " --Anti expansion in coverage and/or increase in benefits; favoring contraction and/or decrease
0911 Unemployment compensation--NA direction
0912 " " --Pro expansion in coverage and/or increase in benefits
0913 " " --Anti expansion in coverage and/or increase in benefits; favoring contraction and/or decrease
0914 Aid to education--NA direction
0915 " " --Pro
0916 " " --Anti
0917 Aid to parochial schools--NA direction
0918 " " " --Pro
0919 " " " --Anti
1047 Establish/enforce standards for schools (test teachers, require minimum curricula, regulate class size, etc) -- NA direction
1048 " " " -- Pro
1049 " " " --Anti
0920 Housing--NA direction
0921 " --Pro more public housing
0922 " --Anti more public housing
* 0923 Aid/Programs for older people/the aged, Medicare, Medicaid, prescription drug plan, direction -- NA
* 0924 " " " -- Pro
* 0925 " " " -- Anti
1059 School vouchers--NA direction
1060 " " --Pro
1061 " " --Anti
0926 Monetary policy--NA direction
0927 " " --Pro loose(r) money; more availability of loans for housing, cars, etc.; lower interest rates
0928 " " --Anti loose(r) money; for tighter money; less availability of loans; higher interest rates
1046 Solvency/stability/regulation/control of the nation's

FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. [1990] Involvement in the Savings and Loan scandals
0929 Tax policy--NA direction
0930 " " --Pro lower taxes
0931 " " --Anti lower taxes; for higher taxes
0932 " " --Pro reform/fairer system/end of loopholes/write-offs/dodges
0933 " " --Anti reform/fairer system/end of loopholes/write-offs/dodges
0942 [1990] Candidate voted for the budget agreement which resulted in increased taxes/fees
0934 "The Times"/General conditions/Prosperity/The Economy--better under him/them
0935 " " --worse under him/them
0936 Inflation/Cost of living--lower/better under him/them
0937 " " " --higher/worse under him/them
0938 Wages/Salaries/Income/Employment--higher/better under him/them
0939 " " " " --lower/worse under him/them
0940 Prices for producers--higher/better under him/them
0941 " " --lower/worse (if farm, see 0943-0945)
0942 Located after 0933
0943 Programs to help farmers -- NA direction
0944 " " " --Pro (greater) help/fairer system, reform in system; higher price supports
0945 " " " --Anti (greater) help/fairer system, reform in system; higher price supports
0946 Civil rights/Racial justice/Integration/Desegregation/Voting Rights -- NA direction
0947 " " -- Pro
0948 " " -- Anti
1043 Affirmative Action programs -- NA direction
1044 " " " -- Pro; favors quotas based on race or gender
1045 " " " -- Anti; opposes quotas based on race or gender
0949 Civil liberties/Freedom of expression/First amendment/Privacy -- NA direction
0950 " -- Pro; against snooping; political trials, etc; (88) like Dukakis' stand on Pledge of Allegiance issue
0951 " -- Anti; for snooping; political trials;
McCarthyite; (88) dislike Republican party stand on Pledge of Allegiance issue
0952 General assessment of Labor policy (unspecified)
0953 Right to work laws--NA direction
0954 " " " --Pro (i.e., opposes unions [anti-labor, code 1208])
0955 " " " --Anti (i.e., supports unions [pro-labor, code 1207])
0956 Strikes--NA direction
0957 " --will have fewer/will handle better
0958 " --will have more/will handle worse
0959 Public power/Utilities/TVA/Atomic reactors/Nuclear power plants/Etc. -- NA direction
0960 " " " -- Pro
0961 " " " -- Anti
0962 Ecology/Environment; Air and Water Pollution--NA direction
0963 Will crack down on polluters, will be activist; will protect the environment
0964 Won't crack down on polluters, doesn't care; in league with polluters; not willing to protect the environment
0965 Veterans' Benefits--NA direction
0966 " " --Pro expansion of coverage and/or increase in benefits
0967 " " --Anti expansion of coverage and/or increase in benefits; favoring contraction and/or decrease
0968 Law and order--NA direction
0969 " " --soft line--unspecified
0970 " " " " --blacks
0971 " " " " --campus demonstrators
0972 " " " " --criminals/organized crime/hoodlums/street crime
0973 " " " " --anti power of police; court interference
1041 " " " " --opposes death penalty
0974 " " --hard line--unspecified
0975 " " " " --blacks
0976 " " " " --campus demonstrators
0977 " " " " --criminals/organized crime/hoodlums/street crime
0978 " " " " --pro power of police; reduced court interference
1042 " " " " --favors death penalty
0979 Public morality--NA direction
0980 " " --Strict/older/traditionalistic outlook; improve/renew morality of country; pro-family; defends family values
0981 " " --Permissive/newer/modernistic outlook; not (strongly enough) pro-family; doesn't defend
(strongly enough) family values
0982 Drugs--NA direction
0983 " --Pro legalization/decriminalization; soft-liner; (88) doesn't support (strongly enough) the war on drugs; not willing to do more to combat drug use/pushers; involvement with Noreiga
0984 " --Anti legalization/decriminalization; hard-liner; (88) supports the war on drugs; willing to do more to combat drug use/pushers
0985 Abortion and birth control--NA direction
0986 " " " --Pro reform/legalization; new outlook
0987 " " " --Anti reform/legalization; traditional outlook
0988 Gun control--NA direction
0989 " " --Pro; controls
0990 " " --Anti; "everyone has the right to own a gun"
0991 Busing--NA direction
0992 " --Pro; against neighborhood school
0993 " --Anti; for neighborhood school
0994 Urban problem/Cities--NA direction
0995 " " " --Pro government aid/activity
0996 " " " --Anti government aid/activity
** 0997 Other domestic policy reasons
1001 National Health Insurance--NA direction
1002 " " " --Pro
1003 " " " --Anti
1004 Energy/Gas shortage--Development of alternative energy source, NA direction
1005 " " " --Pro development of alternative source, better/handled better; more fuel
1006 " " " --Anti development of alternative energy source, worse/handled worse; less fuel
References to nuclear energy should be coded in 0959.
1007 Government plans to make more jobs--NA direction; make-work programs; CETA; WPAL; CCA
1008 " " " " --Pro
1009 " " " " --Anti
1010 Confidence/Trust in government--NA direction
1011 " " " --would handle better; restore confidence
1012 " " " --would handle worse; cause loss of confidence
1013 ERA; Women's rights--NA direction
1014 " " " --Pro
1015 " " " --Anti
* 1016 Influx of political/economic refugees (Cubans, Haitians, Mexicans, etc.); include "the little Cuban boy"-Elian
Gonzalez --NA direction
* 1017 " " " --Pro
* 1018 " " " --Anti
1019 School prayer--NA direction
1020 " " --Pro
1021 " " --Anti
1022 Gay rights--NA direction
1023 " " --Pro
1024 " " --Anti
1025 Health--NA direction; medical reform (do not use 1001 unless specific reference to National Health Insurance)
1026 Health--Pro government programs/aid for mentally ill, disabled, handicapped, AIDS
1027 " --Anti " " " " "
(except 0923, 0924, 0925)
1028 Space program--NA direction
1029 " " --Pro
1030 " " --Anti
1031 Help to/improvement in a specific industry or occupation--NA direction
1032 " " " " " -- Pro help/improvement
1033 " " " " " -- Anti help/improvement
(NOTE: Tobacco industry/smoking has been coded under 1031-1033)
1035 Polarization of classes/increasing gap between rich and poor--NA direction
1036 " " " " "
--will stop trend/handle better
1037 " " " " "
--will accelerate trend/handle worse
1038 Day care--NA direction
1039 " " --favors/will expand or extend day care programs
1040 " " --opposes/will not expand or extend (will cut or eliminate) day care programs
1041 Located after 0973
1042 Located after 0978
1043 Located after 0948
1044 Located after 0948
1045 Located after 0948
1046 Located after 0928
1047 Located after 0919
1048 Located after 0919
1049 Located after 0919
1050 Local/state issue mentioned--NA direction
1051 " " " --pro
1052 " " " --anti
1053 How candidate feels about/votes on Clinton impeachment--NA direction
1054 " " " --pro
1055 " " " --anti
* 1056 Financing of elections; campaign finance reform-NA dir
* 1057 " " " " -Pro
* 1058 " " " " -Anti

PARTY OR CANDIDATE--FOREIGN POLICIES
1101 General assessment of foreign ideas/policies/stands (unspecified)
1102 Foreign policies more clear-cut/decisive; less bungling
1103 Foreign policies less clear-cut/decisive; more bungling
1104 Internationalist/Interested in other countries' problems/Interested in world role/Pro-UN and allies; Meddling in other people's problems
1105 Isolationist/America First/Fortress America/Would meddle less in other people's problems
1184 Military/Defense position/spending--NA direction or neutral (not 1106, 1107)
1106 Strong military position/Preparedness/Weapons systems/Pentagon spending/Overkill; SDI ("Star Wars")
1107 Weak military position/Pentagon spending cutbacks/No overkill/Reduce armed forces; SDI ("Star Wars")
1108 Cold-war oriented; opposed detente; international Communist-fighter
1109 Against cold war/Wants thaw/Detente/Understanding with international communists (if NA whether international, code in 0813-0814)
1110 Military aid to allies--NA direction
1111 " " " --Pro
1112 " " " --Anti
1113 Economic aid/Foreign aid/AID/Non-military aid--NA dir.
1114 " " " " " " " --Pro
1115 " " " " " " " --Anti
1116 Located after 1163
1117 " " "
1118 Mideast--NA direction; any references to oil embargo; boycott of companies dealing with Israel
1119 " --handle better/more experience; positive comments about Arab-Israeli peace treaty
1120 " --handle worse/less experience; negative comments about Arab-Israeli peace treaty; [1992]
Iraqgate
1121 " --Pro-Israel/anti-Arabs
1122 " --Anti-Israel/pro-Arabs; wishy-washy on Israel
1123 Red China--NA direction
1124 " " --handle better/more experience/doing well, better
1125 " " --handle worse/less experience/doing poorly
1126 " " --pro understanding/thaw/detente/new relationships/recognition/admission to UN
1127 " " --anti understanding/thaw/detente/new relationships/recognition/admission to UN; defender of Formosa/Chaing/Nationalists
1128 Russia--NA direction
1129 " --handle better/more experience
1130 " --handle worse/less experience
1131 " --pro understanding/thaw/detente/broadening of relations; SALT II
1132 " --anti understanding/thaw/detente/broadening of relations; SALT II
1133 Eastern Europe--NA direction
1134 " " --handle better/more experience
1135 " " --handle worse/less experience
1136 " " --pro defense of Iron-Curtain countries
1137 " " --anti " " "
1138 Latin America--NA direction
1139 " " --handle better/more experience
1140 " " --handle worse/less experience
1141 " " --pro-third world posture; reach understanding with Castro/Chile/neutrals; anti colonialism/European powers; against Contra aid/pro-Sandinista
1142 " " --anti-third world posture; hard anti-communism/anti-revolutionary policy; pro-colonialism/European powers; pro Contra aid/anti-Sandinista
1198 (Involvement in) Diversion of money to the Contras (in violation of the law)
1143 Africa--NA direction
1144 " --handle better/more experience
1145 " --handle worse/less experience
1146 " --pro-third world posture; reach understanding with leftists/neutrals; anti-colonialism/European powers
1147 " --anti-third world posture; hard anti-communism/anti-revolutionary policy; pro-colonialism/European powers
1148 Asia/India--NA direction
1149 " " --handle better/more experience
1150 " " --handle worse/less experience
1151 " " --pro India/Bangladesh
1152 " " --pro Pakistan
1153 Located after 1163
1154 " " "
1155 " " "
1156 " " "
1157 Vietnam/Indochina/Southeast Asia--NA direction
1158 " " " " --better chance for peace
1159 " " " " --poorer chance for peace; failed to end war
1160 " " " " --pro military victory/preservation of Saigon regime
1161 " " " " --anti military victory/willing to sacrifice Thieu/Ky;favoring withdrawal
1163 " " --will bring policy change (unspec.)
1116 Trouble spots (not specifically coded)--would handle better (Panama, Afghanistan, Persian Gulf, Iraq)
1117 " " " " " --would handle worse (Panama, Afghanistan, Persian Gulf, Iraq)
1162 (88) The invasion of Grenada 1300 (91) The Persian Gulf war/ Desert Storm
* 1301 (99) War in the Balkans;US/NATO led air war against Serbia
1153 Would raise American prestige
1154 Would lower American prestige; not maintain American prestige
1155 Would have better chance for peace (unspecified); not get us into trouble abroad
1156 Would have poorer chance for peace (unspecified); get us into war/trouble abroad
1164 Tariffs--NA direction
1165 " --Pro free trade/reduce tariffs; would not protect US labor from foreign competition
1166 " --Anti free trade; for high tariffs; would protect US labor from foreign competition
1196 Foreign trade/balance of payments deficit--any mention
1167 Trade with communists--NA direction
1168 " " --Pro
1169 " " --Anti
1170 Draft--NA direction
1171 " --Pro volunteer army/abolition of peacetime draft
1172 " --Anti volunteer army; for peacetime draft
1173 " --Pro amnesty/pardon
1174 " --Anti amnesty/draft dodgers/pardon
1178 Amnesty--NA direction
1175 POW-MIA--Will get prisoners back, will not abandon them
1176 POW-MIA--Will not get prisoners back, will abandon them
1177 POW-MIA--NA direction
1178 Located after 1174
1179 Did a good job of getting the boys/country out of Vietnam war; got us out of Vietnam
1180 Should have won Vietnam war; gave too much away and then pulled out
1181 Secrecy/deception in U.S. foreign policy; shuttle
diplomacy; Kissinger's foreign policy (1976) --NA direction
1182 " " " " --Pro
1183 " " " " --Anti
1184 Located after 1105
1185 Priorities in military/defense spending (not reduction or increase but allocation of existing defense budget--Pro
1186 Priorities in military/defense spending (not reduction or increase but allocation of existing defense budget--Anti
1187 Iranian crisis; American hostages (1980)/Arms sale (1986) --NA direction
1188 " " " " --has handled well/would handle better
1189 " " " " --has handled poorly/would handle worse
1190 Nuclear freeze/Disarmament--NA direction
1191 " " " --Pro
1192 " " " --Anti
1193 Terrorism; dealings with terrorists; hostages (except
1187-1189) -- NA direction; (88) Bombing of Libya
1194 " " " -- has handled/would handle better; (88) Bombing of Libya/handling of Khadafy
1195 " " " -- has handled/would handle worse; (88) Bombing of Libya/handling of Khadafy
* 1302 Security at the Dept of Energy; supposed Chinese spying for nuclear secrets; treatment of physicist Wen Ho Lee; mismanagement by Energy Secretary Bill Richardson-NA dir
* 1303 " -- has handled well/would handle better
* 1304 " -- has handled poorly/would handle worse
1196 Located after 1166
** 1197 Other foreign policy reasons
1198 Located after 1142
1199 Iran-Contra affair--NFS (NA whether 1187 or 1198)

PARTY OR CANDIDATE--GROUP CONNECTIONS
1201 Special interests/Privileged people/Influential--Pro
1202 " " " " --Anti
1203 "People like me"--pro, NA whether 1205, 1206
1204 " " " --anti, " " " "
1205 Common man/People/Little people/Working people--Pro
1206 " " " " --Anti
1207 Labor/Unions/Labor bosses/Racketeers--Pro
1208 " " " " --Anti
1209 Big Business/Corporate rich/The rich individuals/People with power/Wall Street/Industry/Upper classes--Pro
1210 (Same as 1209) --Anti
1211 Small businessman--Pro
1212 " " --Anti
1213 White collar workers/Salaried people/Middle class--Pro
1214 " " " " --Anti
1215 Farmers/Country people--Pro
1216 " " --Anti
1217 Blacks/Black people/Negroes--Pro
1218 " " " --Anti
1219 People on welfare/ADC mothers/"Chiselers"--Pro
1220 " " " " --Anti
1221 Old people/Senior citizens--Pro
1222 " " " --Anti
1223 Young people/Kids/"Freaks"/Hippies--Pro
1224 " " " " " --Anti
1225 Women/Feminists/Womens Liberationists, "sexists"--Pro
1226 " " " " " --Anti
1227 Veterans/Servicemen--Pro
1228 " " --Anti
1229 Ethnic or racial group (exc. 1217-1218); Minority groups
(NA composition--Pro
1230 " " " --Anti
1231 Section of the country--Pro
1232 " " --Anti
* 1233 Poor people/needy people/handicapped/disabled--Pro
* 1234 " " " " " --Anti
1235 Civil servants--Pro
1236 " " --Anti
1239 Gays/lesbians--Pro
1240 " " --Anti
1241 Christian Right/Religious Right--Pro
1242 " " --Anti
* 1243 White/White Race/White people--Pro
* 1244 " " --Anti
* 1245 White Men--Pro
* 1246 White Men--Anti
* 1247 Hispanics/Latinos/Chicanos--Pro
* 1248 " "
** 1297 Other group connection reasons
1300 Located after 1162

MISSING DATA CODES
9001 R has been influenced by spouse
9002 R has been influenced by someone else
* 9991 No text, "none", "no", other uncodeable
9996 Refused to say
** 9997 Other miscellaneous
9998 DK
9999 NA
0000 Inap, no further mentions
Note 2: Most Important Problems
* indicates new or amended code in 2000
** indicates "other" codes
SOCIAL WELFARE PROBLEMS
001. General reference to domestic issues; repairing/maintaining the nation's infrastructure (roads, bridges, dams, etc)
005. POPULATION; any mention of population increase; reference to over-population/birth control
006. DAY CARE; child care
010. UNEMPLOYMENT; the number of people with jobs; unemployment rate/compensation; job retraining
013. CREATE JOBS/RECRUIT INDUSTRY in specific area/region/ state
020. EDUCATION; financial assistance for schools/colleges/students; quality of education/the learning environment/teaching
030. AGED/ELDERLY; social security benefits; administration of social security; medical care for the aged; medicare benefits; insuring against catastrophic illness; prescription drug program for elderly
035. Social Security won't be around in the future; paying into a system which won't benefit me/them
040. HEALTH PROBLEMS/COST OF MEDICAL CARE; quality of medical care; medical research/training of doctors and other health personnel; hospitals; National Health insurance program
045. Located after 330
046. Located after 383
048. Other specific references to health problems; AIDS
050. HOUSING; providing housing for the poor/homeless; ability of young people to afford to buy homes/find homes to buy
060. POVERTY; aid to the poor/underprivileged people; help for the (truly) needy; welfare programs (such as ADC); general reference to anti-poverty programs; hunger/help for hungry people in the U.S.
090. SOCIAL WELFARE PROBLEMS; "welfare"--NFS
091. For general or other social welfare programs; "we need to help people more"
092. Against general or other social welfare programs; "too many give away programs for the people who don't deserve it"; for welfare reform
** 099. Other specific mentions of social welfare problems

AGRICULTURE
100. FARM ECONOMICS; payment for crops/price of feed/cost of farming
103. SUBSIDIES/crop payments/government aid to farmers
120. WORLD FOOD PROBLEMS; food shortages/starvation/famine (not 406 or 407)

NATURAL RESOURCES
150. CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES; conservation, ecology; protecting the environment/endangered species
151. Controlling/REGULATING GROWTH or land development; banning further growth/development in crowded or ecologically sensitive areas; preserving natural areas
153. POLLUTION; clean air/water
154. Disposal of RADIOACTIVE/TOXIC waste (dumps, landfills)
160. DEVELOPMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES /ENERGY SOURCES; harbors, dams, canals, irrigation, flood control, navigation, reclamation; location, mining, stock-piling of minerals; water
power, atomic power; development of alternative sources of energy (includes mentions of solar or nuclear power)
** 199. Other specific mentions of agriculture or natural resources problems

LABOR PROBLEMS: UNION-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS
200. LABOR/UNION PROBLEMS; union practices; job security provided workers; job safety issues; working conditions
220. Anti-union; unions too powerful
** 299. Other specific mention of labor or union-management problems

RACIAL PROBLEMS
300. CIVIL RIGHTS/RACIAL PROBLEMS; programs to enable Blacks to gain social/economic/educational/political equality; relations between Blacks and whites
302. PROTECTION (expansion) OF WHITE MAJORITY; maintenance of segregation; right to choose own neighborhood; right to discriminate in employment
304. Discrimination against whites; preferred treatment given to minorities

TECHNOLOGY
310. Technology; mentions that are specific to technology; e.g., the Year 2000 computer (Y2K) problem

PUBLIC ORDER PROBLEMS
320. NARCOTICS; availability of drugs; extent of drug/alcohol addiction in the U.S.; interdiction of drugs coming to the U.S. from foreign countries; alcohol or drug related crime; drug laws
330. WOMEN'S RIGHTS; references to women's issues; economic equality for women; ERA
045. PRO-ABORTION; pro-choice; the right of a woman to control her body
340. CRIME/VIOLENCE; too much crime; streets aren't safe; mugging, murder, shoplifting; drug related crime
360. LAW AND ORDER; respect for the law/police; support for the police; death penalty; tougher sentences for criminals; need for more prisons
361. Legal reform--general (for mentions regarding specific issues, see specific issue); see also Adhering to the Constitution (code 850)
* 363. Police brutality; police not doing their job properly
367. Against unregistered ownership of guns; legislative control of guns;
"CONTROL OF GUNS"-NFS
368. For gun ownership; right to have guns; against gun control
370. EXTREMIST GROUPS/TERRORISTS; terrorist bombings/hostage-taking; political subversives; revolutionary ideas/approaches
375. Euthenasia; right to die
380. General mention of MORAL/RELIGIOUS DECAY (of nation); sex, bad language, adult themes on TV
381. Family problems--divorce; proper treatment of children; decay of family (except 006); child/elder abuse (incl. sexual); family values
046. ANTI-ABORTION; pro-life; "abortion"--NFS
383. Problems of/with YOUNG PEOPLE; drug/alcohol abuse among young people; sexual attitudes; lack of values/ discipline; mixed-up thinking; lack of goals/ambition/sense of responsibility
384. Religion (too) mixed up in politics; prayer in school
385. HOMOSEXUALITY; protecting civil rights of gays and lesbians; accepting the lifestyle of homosexuals; granting homosexual couples the same rights and benefits as heterosexual couples
** 399. Other specific mention of racial or public order problems; other mention of domestic issues

ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS PROBLEMS
If R mentions both "inflation" (400) and rise in prices of specific items
(407-409), code "Inflation" (400). (See also 496.)
400. INFLATION; rate of inflation; level of prices; cost of living
401. WAGE AND PRICE CONTROLS/GUIDELINES; freezing prices; control of business profits
403. High price of food, all mentions (exc. 100)
404. High price of other specific items and services
405. MINIMUM WAGE, any mention; any mention of wage levels
407. Food shortages; economic aspects of food shortages, e.g., price of sugar (other references, code 120)
408. Fuel shortages; "energy crisis"; oil companies making excessive profits; depressed condition of the oil industry
410. RECESSION, DEPRESSION; prosperity of the nation; economic growth; GNP
411. MONETARY RESTRAINTS/CONTROLS; level of interest rates; availability of money/the money supply
413. Future vision of what America will be like; a need to look to the future
415. Against (increased) government spending; balancing of the (national) budget; against government stimulation of the economy; the size of the budget deficit
416. TAXES; general reference to tax structure; tax surcharge (NA R's direction); tax reform; other specific tax reference
417. For tax cuts; against tax surcharge; for tax reform
418. Against tax cuts; for tax surcharge; against tax reform
424. PRODUCTIVITY of American industry; "giving a day's work for a day's pay"; revitalizing American industry
425. STOCK MARKET/GOLD PRICES; all references to gold prices, stock brokers, stock fluctuations, etc.
427. VALUE OF THE DOLLAR; strength/weakness of the dollar against other currencies
433. Large businesses taking over small businesses
440. Class oriented economic concerns--middle class, working class (pro);
MIDDLE CLASS GETTING SQUEEZED
441. Class oriented economic concerns--big business, monied interests (anti) too powerful
442. Concern for inequitable distribution of wealth; gap between the rich and the poor; concentration of wealth in the hands of a few
451. For the regulation of interstate commerce, transportation, air travel, railways, government auto safety regulations; in favor of increased government regulation of business; mention of problems
caused by deregulation
452. Against (increased) regulation of interstate commerce, transportation; AIR TRAVEL, RAILWAYS, etc.
453. Solvency/stability/regulation/control of the nation's
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. [1990] Savings and Loan scandal
* 460. IMMIGRATION POLICY; establishing limits on how many people from any one nation can enter the U.S.; prohibiting specified types of persons from entering the U.S. (All mentions of Elian Gonzales or "the Cuban child" go here. If power of Federal government mentioned, see codes 801 and 887.)
463. Problems relating to the influx of political/economic refugees (Cubans, Haitians, Mexicans, etc.)
491. Economics--general; "Economics"--NFS
492. International economics--general; economic problems in specific countries or regions
493. U.S. foreign trade, balance of payments position; foreign oil dependency
494. Control of FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN U.S.; mention of foreigners buying U.S. assets (businesses, real estate, stocks, etc)
495. PROTECTION OF U.S. INDUSTRIES; imposition of tariffs/reciprocal restrictions on foreign imports; limitation of foreign imports; mention of problems in specific industries competing with foreign manufacturers
496. The economy--not further specified (code specific mention if R clarifies by saying "inflation", etc.; also see 400)
497. International competitiveness; outsourcing; loss of jobs to foreign competition; moving jobs abroad; modernizing plants/equipment/management techniques to meet foreign competition; matching the quality of foreign goods
498. Mention of "twin problems" of a large national debt/budget deficit and unfavorable balance of trade/import-export ratio
** 499. Other specific mention economic or business problems

FOREIGN AFFAIRS
500. FOREIGN RELATIONS/FOREIGN AFFAIRS; foreign policy/relations, prestige abroad
504. Relations with the Third World (no specific country or region mentioned)
505. Relations with WESTERN EUROPE; Great Britain, France, Germany; our allies
510. VIETNAM; general reference to "the war," Indochina, Cambodia; aid
514. Latin America, South America--any references; reference to war/situation in Nicaragua; U.S. support of the Contras
515. Iran; mention of American hostages in Teheran; arms deal
516. African countries; developing areas in Africa (not 518)
--any mention; U.S. response to apartheid in South Africa
519. Other specific countries/areas/trouble spots (exc. 520's, 530's)
524. MIDDLE EAST-- support or aid to Israel/Arab states; Arab/Israeli conflict; Iran-Iraq war; hostages in Lebanon/Middle East. [1990] Iraqi aggression in the Persian Gulf ; Saddam Hussein
530. RUSSIA/Eastern Europe; relations with Russia/the Communist bloc; detente/trade/negotiations with Russia-- NA whether 531 or 532
531. For PEACEFUL RELATIONS with Russia/Detente/Eastern Europe; for increased TRADE with Russia; talking/resuming negotiations with Russia on arms control/reduction (reaching/concluding a treaty is 711)
532. Against policy of Detente with Russia; COLD WAR; threat of external Communism; need to oppose/be wary of Russia
533. Prevention of Russian (Communist) expansion; mention of Soviet invasion and occupation of Afghanistan-- any reference; references to Soviet activity in Central America/Nicaragua)
* 535. US/NATO involvement in the Balkans; US/NATO led air war to contain Serbia
539. Other specific references to Russia/Detente/Eastern Europe, etc.
(including changing site/boycotting 1980 Moscow Olympics); threat of/preventing war with Russia (exc. 714)
540. FIRMNESS IN FOREIGN POLICY; maintenance of position of
MILITARY/DIPLOMATIC STRENGTH (not 710-712)
550. U.S. FOREIGN (MILITARY) INVOLVEMENT/COMMITMENT, extent of U.S. Foreign involvement; military assistance/aid (exc. 524)
560. U.S. FOREIGN (ECONOMIC) INVOLVEMENT/COMMITMENTS; extent of U.S.(foreign) economic aid; "foreign aid"
570. Prevention of war; ESTABLISHMENT OF PEACE; any reference
585. Obligation to TAKE CARE OF PROBLEMS AT HOME before helping foreign countries
** 599. Other specific mention of foreign affairs problems

NATIONAL DEFENSE
700. NATIONAL DEFENSE; defense budget; level of spending on defense
710. DISARMAMENT; general reference to ENDING OF THE ARMS RACE; nuclear proliferation; test ban treaty (not 540); SALT; INF treaty
711. For DISARMAMENT; for extension of test ban treaty; support toward ending of arms race; against (additional) expenditures on military/arms development; SALT; SDI ("Star Wars"); INF treaty
712. Against (increased) policy of DISARMAMENT; against test ban treaty; for additional WEAPONS DEVELOPMENT; missile program; scientific/technological development in weapons/strategy; atomic
bomb testing; increased DEFENSE BUDGET, increased arms expenditure (not 540); SALT; increased pay for military personnel; SDI ("Star Wars"); INF treaty
713. General or specific references to functioning and performance of defense; waste, inefficiency (not codable in 710-712)
714. Nuclear war; the threat of nuclear war; nuclear proliferation
* 715. Security of nuclear secrets; Dept of Energy/Los Alamos nuclear security; Wen Ho Lee or Energy Secretary Richard compromising security; supposed Chinese spying
740. The space program; space race (not 711,712)
750. MORALE OF NATION; Patriotism; National spirit; national unity; greed, selfishness of people
760. BENEFITS FOR VETERANS; general reference
765. Allowing/accepting GAYS IN THE MILITARY
** 799. Other specific mention of national defense problems
ISSUES RELATING TO THE FUNCTIONING OF GOVERNMENT
800. POWER OF THE (FEDERAL) GOVERNMENT; power of/control exercised by the federal government
810. (LACK OF) HONESTY IN GOVERNMENT; (LACK OF) ETHICS IN GOVERNMENT--general reference (exc. 811)
811. LACK OF PERSONAL ETHICS/morality of persons related to or part of government
812. The President lied/didn't tell the truth; covered up personal involvement with a young woman (also see more general code 874)
813. The President has low morals; had affair with a young woman (also see more general code 874)
820. CAMPAIGN DONATIONS/PUBLIC FINANCING OF ELECTIONS; any mentions; campaign finance reform
830. CONFIDENCE/TRUST in political leaders/system; wisdom, ability, responsiveness of political leaders; quality of leadership provided by political leaders
833. QUALITY/EFFICIENCY of public employees, diplomats, civil service; SIZE OF THE GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY; COST OF GOVERNMENT
836. COMPENSATION; all references to the compensation of government employees, officials, congressmen, judges, local politicians/bureaucrats
837. Waste in government spending; keeping tabs on where money goes
838. Government BUDGET PRIORITIES are wrong; Congress/President is spending money in the wrong areas/not spending money on the right things
840. SIZE OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT; the (large) size of government/civil service/bureaucracy; the number of government departments/employees/programs
850. Adhering to the Constitution (see also legal reform, code 361)
853. POWER OF CONGRESS--general reference
856. POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT, all other references to the Supreme Court except 857, 858
859. Other specific references to the (federal) balance of power; legislative gridlock in Washington
862. FAIR ELECTION PROCEDURES; prevention of vote manipulation; curbing of political "bosses", smear campaigns
869. Other specific references to problems of representation; term limitations for members of Congress
874. Lack of support for the President; any anti-President comments, negative reference to the PRESIDENT's quality, style, etc. (also see codes 812, 813)
875. Impeachment proceeding; mention of the Special Prosecutor; Republicans attempting to get the President out of office/Democrats attempting to keep the President in office (also see codes 812, 813)
878. Mention of a specific CANDIDATE or relative of a candidate -- NFS
881. New president/administration getting started; other references specific to the President; support for the President; "let him get on with his job"
885. PUBLIC APATHY/disinterest--all references
886. References to unfair/undeserved/excessive criticism by the media. All media mentions should go here: "The news can't be trusted"
887. Extending/protecting EQUAL RIGHTS, basic freedoms, human rights of all citizens
** 899. Other specific mention of problems relating to the functioning of government
NON-POLITICAL PROBLEMS
995. "There were no issues"; "there were no issues, just party politics"
996. "There was no campaign in my district"
** 997. Other specific mentions of important problems
998. DK
999. NA
000. Inap, no further mention; no problems
Note 3: Party Differences
* indicates new or amended code in 2000
** indicates "other" codes
Responses that refer specifically to the candidates rather than parties should be coded 910. However, if the candidates are referred to as leaders or representatives of the parties, the response should be coded with the appropriate code category.
BROAD PHILOSOPHY
Liberal Responses
001. More liberal, progressive--too far left
* 005. Pro-Supreme Court/judicial appointment of liberal/progressive judges
* 006. Anti-Supreme Court/judicial appointment of conservative/reactionary judges
010. Acceptance of change/new ideas; less bound to status quo; more open to new ideas; new ways of doing things
020. Quick (rash) response to problems; tackle problems quickly; impetuous; impulsive; too aggressive; take more chances; not cautious enough
030. More extreme, radical (NFS)
040. Socialistic; for welfare state; for social welfare programs; sensitive to social problems; leaves less to (interferes more with) private enterprise
* 050. Depends (too much) on federal government (rather than state or local government); (too) centralized, paternalism; want Washington to do everything; Pro Big government.
* 060. Destroy personal initiative/individual responsibility/individual dignity; recognize individual needs
government help; society has obligation to provide safety net
070. Future-oriented; plan ahead; look to the future
085. Freedom to do as one chooses; less interested in strict control of social behavior; not interested in moral standards
086. Not religious; against prayer in school
** 090. Other broad philosophy--liberal
Conservative Responses
100. More conservative/reactionary; too far right
105. Pro-Supreme Court/judicial appointment of conservative/reactionary judges
106. Anti-Supreme Court/judicial appointment of liberal/progressive judges
110. Resistance to change/new ideas; stick to (protect) status quo; traditionalists; resist new ways of doing things; rigid
120. Slow (cautious) response to problems; do-nothing; lets things go
130. Moderate; middle of road (NFS); less extreme
140. For free enterprise capitalism; against socialism (code "help big business" under group references); unaware of social problems; for development of private enterprise; against expansion of government activities into areas of private enterprise
* 150. For states' rights, local government; less interference from Washington at local level; against powerful federal government; Anti Big government
* 160. Initiative/responsibility/dignity of individual protected; for self-reliance.
170. Not future-oriented; don't plan ahead; don't worry about the future
185. Definite moral standards/stands; concern for/control of public morality; upholds/fosters family values
186. (Good) Christian; strong religious beliefs; for prayer in school
** 190. Other broad philosophy--conservative
BROAD PHILOSOPHY-DIRECTION NA
* 195. Pro-Party influence on appointments to Supreme Court/judicial appointment (NA type)
* 196. Anti-Party influence on appointments to Supreme Court/judicial appointment (NA type)
GROUP REFERENCES
Party Seen as Good for, Helping, Giving Special Advantage to:
200. Everybody; nobody; no catering to special interests, "people" (the majority)
* 210. Working or little people; the common people, the working class; "average man"
* 211. Needy; poor; disadvantaged; welfare recipients
212. People like me; people like us
220. Unions, "labor", labor leaders
230. Big business; industry, "business(men)", Wall Street (except small businessman, code 240); agribusiness/large farming businesses
231. Rich people; upper classes; wealthy (powerful) people
240. Small businessmen
250. Middle class people; white collar people
260. Farmers
270. Blacks
272. Hispanics/Chicanos/Latinos
273. Asians
** 280. Other racial and ethnic groups
281. The South, some portion of the south
282. The North, some portion of the north
283. White people, white people only
284. Minorities, minority groups (NA which)
285. Old people
286. The educated, intellectuals, students
287. Families
288. Religious conservatives; religious right
** 290. Other groups
* 291. Children
* 292. Women
299. Group differences codeable in 200 or 300 series--NA which Party Seen as Bad for, Anti, Keeping in Check, Putting in Place
300. Divisive (sets class against class, caters to special interests (NA what), plays group politics, not for all the people; (Dems/Reps) only for themselves
* 310. Working or little people; the common people, the working class; "average man"
* 311. Needy; poor; disadvantaged; welfare recipients
312. People like me; people like us
320. Unions, "labor", labor leaders
330. Big business; industry, "business(men)", Wall Street (except small businessman, code 340); agribusiness/large farming businesses
331. Rich people; upper classes; wealthy (powerful) people)
340. Small businessmen
350. Middle class people; white collar people
360. Farmers
370. Blacks
371. Racist, prejudiced, bigoted
372. Hispanics/Chicanos/Latinos
373. Asians
** 380. Other racial and ethnic groups; "minority groups" other or not specified
381. The South, some portion of the south
382. The North, some portion of the north
383. White people, white people only
384. Minorities, minority groups (NA which)
385. Old people
386. The educated, intellectuals, students
387. Families
388. Religious conservatives; religious right
** 390. Other groups
* 391. Children
* 392. Women
DOMESTIC POLICY REFERENCES
Fiscal Policy--Easy Spending Responses
400. Spend more freely/high spenders (NFS)
401. Spend much relative to what is accomplished; wasteful, not careful with spending
402. Spend much relative to money available; spend us deeper in debt; deficit spending
403. Spend under special circumstances, such as hard times
* 404. Bring cheap money; more money circulating; lower interest rates
** 405. Other easy spending response
406. Raise taxes--NFS; keep taxes high; seek to increase government revenues
407. Increase income taxes; will not cut income taxes; rely on increase in/high income tax to provide government revenues
Fiscal Policy--Cautious Spending Responses
500. Spend less freely; economy in government (NFS)
501. Spend little relative to what is accomplished; less wasteful/more careful with government (taxpayers') money
502. Spend little relative to money available; reduce debt, keep debt from getting higher, balanced budget
503. Spend little even when special circumstances might warrant
* 504. For sound money/tight money, deflation; higher interest rates
** 505. Other cautious spending response
506. Cut taxes--NFS; keep taxes low; seek to decrease government revenues
507. Cut income taxes; will not increase income taxes; rely on taxes other than income tax to provide government revenue
591. General mention of taxes--neutral or NA direction
599. General mention of spending--neutral or NA direction Association of Party with Good/Positive Domestic Situations
411. Responsible promised (NA what); restraint on promises, realistic, doesn't promise too much
412. Don't have (too much) government control over the economy; or lets business get more involved/handle problems of poverty/unemployment, etc.
413. (Good) government control of the economy, business
415. Good for the nation's economy--general positive reference
420. Prosperity in nation; good times for all, high national production, avoidance of depression, high employment
431. Price inflation held in check; lower cost of living
435. Propose/enact fair taxes; believe everyone should be taxed the same/that taxes should be even-handed
436. Give tax breaks to the poor/working/middle class people; tax policies favor the lower/middle classes
440. Local personal good times economically; head of family gets (keeps) better job (wages) when party is in power, family better off economically under this party (no direct government benefits like social security mentioned)
450. Honesty and integrity--characteristics of the party or administration (local or national), other similar characteristics of the party
451. One party has more experience, is better, smarter, more united
480. (Only) party has a philosophy/program/platform; stands for something
** 490. Other positive domestic associations
491. General mention of unemployment--neutral or NA direction
492. General mention of inflation--neutral or NA direction
493. General mention of economic policy/handling of the economy
499. A domestic issue difference is cited which could be coded in the 400 or 500 series, but NA which
Association of Party with Bad/Negative Domestic Situations
511. Irresponsible promises (NA what); promises too much; unrealistic, pie-in-the sky; can't fulfill promises
512. Have (too much) government control over the economy; or does not let business get more involved/handle problems of poverty/unemployment, etc.
513. (Poor) government control of the economy
515. Bad for the nation's economy, general negative reference
520. Hard times, depression in nation, much unemployment, low (over) production
531. Create/does not control price inflation; high cost of living in nation
535. Propose/enact unfair taxes; show favoritism/give tax breaks to certain groups or types of people
536. Give tax breaks to the wealth/corporations; tax policies favor the rich/powerful/upper classes
540. Local/personal hard times economically; head of family gets laid off (poorer wages) when party is in power; family worse off economically under this party
550. Dishonesty/corruption (nepotism, graft, patronage) of party or administration (local or national); other similar characteristics of the party; Watergate
551. One party has less experience/is worse/not as smart; party is not (is less) unified
580. Party has no philosophy/programs/platform; doesn't stand for anything
** 590. Other negative domestic association with party
Specific Domestic Policies Favored by Party
600. Minimum wage legislation; favors raising minimum wage, or favors raising unemployment compensation
601. Social Security; government pension raises
* 602. Financing of campaigns; for campaign finance reform
* 607. Immigration policy; for allowing (more) immigrants in
* 610. Medical (health) insurance; medical card for aged; socialized medicine; medicare; prescription drug plans
* 611. Affirmative action
612. Housing; aid to the homeless
620. Government control of utilities; more attention to conservation; public works; mention of ecology,
environment
630. Federal aid to education/school-building; teachers' pay higher
631. Bussing; forced integration
632. Other federal control of education or schools response; school choice plans
634. Gun control
640. Civil rights; insist more strongly on civil rights
641. Law and order--hard line (or NA line); wants a police state; support death penalty (88)
642. Law and order--soft line; oppose death penalty (88)
643. Property rights; open housing
644. Policies which would divide country; have civil war; race war
650. Higher tariffs; less free trade
660. "Wet" legislation; anti-prohibition
670. General mention of social welfare; "give away programs"
671. Poverty program
672. Employment (job) training programs, Job Corps, etc.
680. Farm policy
681. Abortion
682. Women's rights; ERA
683. Legalization of marijuana; (more) lenient drug laws
684. Homosexual/gay rights
691. Democrats support Clinton (against impeachment), although he lied/had affair; anti-Ken Starr
** 690. Other specific domestic policy favored
695. Domestic issues difference, but NA which Specific Domestic Policies--Neutral or NA Direction
605. Minimum wage or unemployment compensation
606. Social Security; government pension
* 608. Financing of campaigns; campaign finance reform
* 609. Immigration policy
* 615. Medical (health) insurance; medical card for aged; socialized medicine; medicare; prescription drug plans
617. Housing; aid to the homeless
625. Government control of utilities; conservation; public works; ecology, environment
635. Federal aid to education; school choice plans
636. Bussing; forced integration
637. Other federal control of education or schools response
639. Gun control
645. Civil rights (legislation)
646. Law and order--hard line (or NA line); death penalty (88)
647. Law and order--soft line; death penalty (88)
648. Property rights; open housing
649. Policies which would divide country; have civil war; race war
* 651. Affirmative action
655. Higher tariffs; free trade
665. Prohibition; "dry"/"wet" legislation
675. General mention of social welfare; "give away programs"
676. Poverty program
677. Employment (job) training programs, Job Corps, etc.
685. Farm policy
686. Abortion
687. Women's rights; ERA
688. Legalization of marijuana; lenient drug laws
689. Homosexual/gay rights Specific Domestic Policies Opposed by Party
700. Minimum wage or unemployment compensation; won't raise minimum wage, won't improve unemployment compensation
701. Social Security; against raising benefits
* 702. Financing of campaigns; against campaign finance reform
* 707. Immigration policy; against letting (more) immigrants in
* 710. Medical (health) insurance; against medical card for aged; against socialized medicine, medicare; prescription drug plans
* 711. Affirmative action
712. Housing; aid to the homeless
720. Government control of utilities; for private power; less interested in conservation; public works; mention of ecology, environment
730. Federal aid to education; against or drag feet on aid to education
731. Bussing; forced integration
732. Other federal control of education or schools response; school choice plans
734. Gun control
740. Civil rights; against or drag feet on civil rights legislation; leave it to states
741. Following a tough or hard line in maintenance of law and order/prevention of crime, etc.; police state; imposing the death penalty (88)
742. Following a soft line in maintenance of law and order/prevention of crime, etc.; imposing the death penalty (88)
743. Property rights; open housing
744. Policies which would divide country; have civil war; race war; want to unite the country
750. High tariffs; want free trade
760. Repeal; want prohibition; "dry"
770. General mention of social welfare; "give away programs"
771. Poverty program
772. Employment (job) training programs, Job Corps, etc.
780. Farm policy
781. Abortion
782. Women's rights; ERA
783. Legalization of marijuana; lenient drug laws
784. Homosexual/gay rights
791. Republicans are against Clinton (in impeachment) because of lying/having affair; pro-Ken Starr
** 790. Other specific domestic policy opposed
FOREIGN POLICY
800. War; get us into war (faster); party associated with war; militarist
810. Peace; more likely to keep peace; party associated with peace
820. Internationalist; more for foreign aid, government activities abroad; cooperate with allies, U.N.; "more for foreign aid/trade"
825. Foreign aid/trade, NA direction
830. Isolationist; avoid foreign activities; cut foreign aid (military or economic); "cut foreign aid/trade"
840. National security; for strong national defense (spending); strong (firm) (too aggressive) posture
toward communism (Russia); too much defense spending
845. National defense--general, NA or neutral direction
850. Inadequate national security; fail to maintain (spend for) defense; weak posture toward communism (Russia)
860. Specific trouble spots
870. Control of nuclear weapons
880. Strong foreign policy
881. Weak foreign policy
884. Space; space policy
** 890. Other foreign policy--other substantive foreign policy mentions (direction of response usually indicated)
891. Mention of "foreign policy" difference but no substance or direction given (e.g., usual response is "the two parties or candidates differ on foreign policy, on how they will handle foreign policy")
MISCELLANEOUS AND NO PARTY DIFFERENCES RESPONSES
900. Miscellaneous other party differences
901. (Only) one party is more successful than the others; wins elections; is (is not) majority party, etc.
902. (Only) one party is less successful than the others; doesn't win elections much; is the minority party
910. Personality/candidate only mentions--candidate is dangerous, fanatic, aggressive, courageous, honest, untrustworthy, impulsive, outspoken, firm, dishonest, negative, lack of integrity, bad politician, etc. (but code 371 racist, prejudiced, bigoted)
920. Reference to probable inability to get things done, e.g., gain congressional support
930. Leadership mentions--a good (bad) leader, is head of the party (R must specifically mention the candidate as leader or head of the party), or one party has better leadership than another
980. The parties are different; everything about them is different (NA what the differences are)
991. There used to be differences, but not now
992. Indicate dissatisfaction with the lack of differences
993. Favorable to both parties, e.g., both parties are seeking to serve the people
994. Indicates that individual candidates are more important than parties anyhow
995. Unfavorable to both parties, e.g., both parties are just after money
996. On variation within parties
** 997. Other comments
998. DK (Code in 1st var only)
999. NA (Code in 1st var only)
000. No party differences ("No" or "DK" and no further comment);no
Note 4: Religious Identification
Codes followed by * have been newly added in 1998.
GENERAL PROTESTANT
010. Protestant, no denomination given
020. Non-denominational Protestant
030. Community church
040. Inter-denominational Protestant
099. Christian (NFS); "just Christian"
ADVENTIST
100. 7th Day Adventist
109. Adventist (NFS)
ANGLICAN
110. Episcopalian; Anglican
111. Independent Anglican, Episcopalian
BAPTIST
120. American Baptist Association
121. American Baptist Churches U.S.A. (inaccurately known as "Northern Baptist")
122. Baptist Bible Fellowship
123. Baptist General Conference
124. Baptist Missionary Association of America
125. Conservative Baptist Association of America
126. General Association of Regular Baptist Churches (G.A.R.B.)
127. National Association of Free Will Baptists (United Free Will Baptist Church)
128. Primitive Baptists
129. National Baptist Convention in the U.S.A.
130. National Baptist Convention of America
131. National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A.
132. Progressive National Baptist Convention
134. Reformed Baptist (Calvinist)
135. Southern Baptist Convention
147. Fundamental Baptist (no denom. ties)
148. Local (independent) Baptist churches with no denominational ties or links to a national
fellowship
149. Baptist (NFS)
CONGREGATIONAL
150. United Church of Christ (includes Congregational, Evangelical and Reformed)
155. Congregational Christian
EUROPEAN FREE CHURCH (ANABAPTISTS)
160. Church of the Brethren
161. Brethren (NFS)
162. Mennonite Church
163. Moravian Church
164. Old Order Amish
165. Quakers (Friends)
166. Evangelical Covenant Church (not Anabaptist in tradition)
167. Evangelical Free Church (not Anabaptist in tradition)
168. Brethren in Christ
170. Mennonite Brethren
HOLINESS
180. Christian and Missionary Alliance (CMA)
181. Church of God (Anderson, IN)
182. Church of the Nazarene
183. Free Methodist Church
184. Salvation Army
185. Wesleyan Church
186. Church of God of Findlay, OH
199. Holiness (NFS); Church of God (NFS); R not or NA whether R Pentecostal or Charismatic
INDEPENDENT-FUNDAMENTALIST
200. Plymouth Brethren
201. Independent Fundamentalist Churches of America
219. Independent-Fundamentalist (NFS)
LUTHERAN
220. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (formerly Lutheran Church in America and The American Lutheran Church); ELCA
221. Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod; LC-MS
222. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod; WELS
223. Other Conservative Lutheran
229. Lutheran (NFS)
METHODIST
230. United Methodist Church; Evangelical United Brethren
231. African Methodist Episcopal Church
232. African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
233. Christian Methodist Episcopal Church
234. Primitive Methodist
240. Congregational Methodist (fundamentalist)*
249. Methodist (NFS)
PENTECOSTAL
250. Assemblies of God
251. Church of God (Cleveland, TN)
252. Church of God (Huntsville, AL)
253. International Church of the Four Square Gospel
254. Pentecostal Church of God
255. Pentecostal Holiness Church
256. United Pentecostal Church International
257. Church of God in Christ (incl. NA whether 258)
258. Church of God in Christ (International)
260. Church of God of the Apostolic Faith
261. Church of God of Prophecy
262. Vineyard Fellowship
** 263 Open Bible Standard Churches
** 264 Full Gospel
267. Apostolic Pentecostal
268. Spanish Pentecostal
269. Pentecostal (NFS); Church of God (NFS); R not or NA whether R Pentecostal or Charismatic
PRESBYTERIAN
270. Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
271. Cumberland Presbyterian Church
272. Presbyterian Church in American (PCA)
275. Evangelical Presbyterian
276. Reformed Presbyterian
279. Presbyterian (NFS)
REFORMED
280. Christian Reformed Church (inaccurately known as "Dutch Reformed")
281. Reformed Church in America
282. Free Hungarian Reformed Church
289. Reformed (NFS)
RESTORATIONIST
290. Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
291. Christian Churches and Churches of Christ
292. Churches of Christ; "Church of Christ" (NFS)
293. Christian Congregation
NON-TRADITIONAL PROTESTANTS
300. Christian Scientists
301. Mormons; Latter Day Saints
302. Spiritualists
303. Unitarian; Universalist
304. Jehovah's Witnesses
305. Unity; Unity Church; Christ Church Unity
306. Fundamentalist Adventist (Worldwide Church of God)
309. Non-traditional Protestant (NFS)
ROMAN CATHOLIC
400. Roman Catholic
JEWISH
500. Jewish, no preference
501. Orthodox
502. Conservative
503. Reformed
** 524. Jewish, other
EASTERN ORTHODOX (GREEK RITE CATHOLIC)
700. Greek Rite Catholic
701. Greek Orthodox
702. Russian Orthodox
703. Rumanian Orthodox
704. Serbian Orthodox
705. Syrian Orthodox
706. Armenian Orthodox
707. Georgian Orthodox
708. Ukranian Orthodox
719. Eastern Orthodox (NFS)
NON-CHRISTIAN/NON-JEWISH
720. Muslim; Mohammedan; Islam
721. Buddhist
722. Hindu
723. Bahai
724. American Indian Religions (Native American Religions)
** 725 New Age
** 726 Wica (Wiccan)
** 727 Pagan
729. Other non-Christian/non-Jewish
790. Religious/ethical cults
OTHER
800. Agnostics
801. Atheists
997. Other
Note 5: Occupation Code
The full 3-digit 1990 Census Occupation Code was used to code the occupation of respondents. In order to minimize the amount of highly specific information released about respondents, the full occupation code has been recoded to a 71 category code, which is based on the occupation code
sub-headings in the Census Code.
Users who need access to the full 3-digit occupation code for their research purposes should contact NES project staff for details about how this could be arranged.
In the code description that follows, the full 1990 Census Code is presented. At the beginning of each recoded section, the statement "(XXX) THROUGH (YYY) ARE RECODED TO (ZZ)" indicates the code values to which the specific occupations have been recoded. For example, purchasing managers (009), legislators (003), and funeral directors (019) have all been recoded to (01). Numbers in parentheses following the occupation categories are the U.S. Department of Commerce's 1980 Standard Occupational Classification code equivalents. The abbreviation "pt" means "part" and
"N.E.C." means "not elsewhere classified".
MANAGERIAL AND PROFESSIONAL SPECIALTY OCCUPATIONS
Executive, Administrative, and Managerial
(003) THROUGH (022) ARE RECODED TO: 01
003 LEGISLATORS (111)
004 CHIEF EXECUTIVES AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATORS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (112)
005 ADMINISTRATORS AND OFFICIALS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (1132-1139)
006 ADMINISTRATORS, PROTECTIVE SERVICES (1131)
007 FINANCIAL MANAGERS (122)
008 PERSONNEL AND LABOR RELATIONS MANAGERS (123)
009 PURCHASING MANAGERS (124)
013 MANAGERS, MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND PUBLIC
RELATIONS (125)
014 ADMINISTRATORS, EDUCATION AND RELATED FIELDS (128)
015 MANAGERS, MEDICINE AND HEALTH (131)
016 POSTMASTERS AND MAIL SUPERINTENDENTS (1344)
017 MANAGERS, FOOD SERVING AND LODGING ESTABLISHMENTS (1351)
018 MANAGERS, PROPERTIES AND REAL ESTATE (1353)
019 FUNERAL DIRECTORS (PT 1359)
021 MANAGERS, SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS, N.E.C. (127, 1352, 1354, PT 1359)
022 MANAGERS AND ADMINISTRATORS, N.E.C. (121, 126, 132-1343, 136-139)
------------------------------------------------------------
Management-Related Occupations
(023) THROUGH (037) ARE RECODED TO: 02
023 ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS (1412)
024 UNDERWRITERS (1414)
025 OTHER FINANCIAL OFFICERS (1415, 1419)
026 MANAGEMENT ANALYSTS (142)
027 PERSONNEL, TRAINING, AND LABOR RELATIONS
SPECIALISTS (143)
028 PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, FARM PRODUCTS (1443)
029 BUYERS, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE, EXCEPT FARM
PRODUCTS (1442)
033 PURCHASING AGENTS AND BUYERS, N.E.C. (1449)
034 BUSINESS AND PROMOTION AGENTS (145)
035 CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS (1472)
036 INSPECTORS AND COMPLIANCE OFFICERS, EXC.
CONSTRUCTION (1473)
037 MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. (149)
------------------------------------------------------------
Professional Specialty Occupations
....................
- engineers, architects and surveyors -
(043) THROUGH (063) ARE RECODED TO: 03 043 ARCHITECTS (161)
ENGINEERS
044 AEROSPACE ENGINEERS (1622)
045 METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERS (1623)
046 MINING ENGINEERS (1624)
047 PETROLEUM ENGINEERS (1625)
048 CHEMICAL ENGINEERS (1626)
049 NUCLEAR ENGINEERS (1627)
053 CIVIL ENGINEERS (1628)
054 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERS (1632)
055 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS (1633, 1636)
056 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS (1634)
057 MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (1635)
058 MARINE ENGINEERS AND NAVAL ARCHITECTS (1637)
059 ENGINEERS, N.E.C. (1639)
063 SURVEYORS AND MAPPING SCIENTISTS (164)
------------------------------------------------------------
- mathematical and computer scientists -
(064) THROUGH (068) ARE RECODED TO: 04
064 COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS AND SCIENTISTS (171)
065 OPERATIONS AND SYSTEMS RESEARCHERS AND ANALYSTS
(172)
066 ACTUARIES (1732)
067 STATISTICIANS (1733)
068 MATHEMATICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. (1739)
------------------------------------------------------------
- natural scientists -
(069) THROUGH (083) ARE RECODED TO: 05
069 PHYSICISTS AND ASTRONOMERS (1842, 1843)
073 CHEMISTS, EXCEPT BIOCHEMISTS (1845)
074 ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE SCIENTISTS (1846)
075 GEOLOGISTS AND GEODESISTS (1847)
076 PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. (1849)
077 AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENTISTS (1853)
078 BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS (1854)
079 FORESTRY AND CONSERVATION SCIENTISTS (1852)
083 MEDICAL SCIENTISTS (1855)
------------------------------------------------------------
- health diagnosing occupations -
(084) THROUGH (089) ARE RECODED TO: 06
084 PHYSICIANS (261)
085 DENTISTS (262)
086 VETERINARIANS (27)
087 OPTOMETRISTS (281)
088 PODIATRISTS (283)
089 HEALTH DIAGNOSING PRACTITIONERS, N.E.C. (289)
------------------------------------------------------------
- health assessment and treating occupations -
(095) THROUGH (106) ARE RECODED TO: 07
095 REGISTERED NURSES (29)
096 PHARMACISTS (301)
097 DIETITIANS (302)
THERAPISTS
098 INHALATION THERAPISTS (3031)
099 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS (3032)
103 PHYSICAL THERAPISTS (3033)
104 SPEECH THERAPISTS (3034)
105 THERAPISTS, N.E.C. (3039)
106 PHYSICIANS' ASSISTANTS (304)
------------------------------------------------------------
- teachers, postsecondary -
(113) THROUGH (154) ARE RECODED TO: 08
113 EARTH, ENVIRONMENTAL AND MARINE SCIENCE TEACHERS
(2212)
114 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE TEACHERS (2213)
115 CHEMISTRY TEACHERS (2214)
116 PHYSICS TEACHERS (2215)
117 NATURAL SCIENCE TEACHERS, N.E.C. (2216)
118 PSYCHOLOGY TEACHERS (2217)
119 ECONOMICS TEACHERS (2218)
123 HISTORY TEACHERS (2222)
124 POLITICAL SCIENCE TEACHERS (2223)
125 SOCIOLOGY TEACHERS (2224)
126 SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHERS, N.E.C. (2225)
127 ENGINEERING TEACHERS (2226)
128 MATHEMATICAL SCIENCE TEACHERS (2227)
129 COMPUTER SCIENCE TEACHERS (2228)
133 MEDICAL SCIENCE TEACHERS (2231)
134 HEALTH SPECIALTIES TEACHERS (2232)
135 BUSINESS, COMMERCE, AND MARKETING TEACHERS (2233)
136 AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY TEACHERS (2234)
137 ART, DRAMA, AND MUSIC TEACHERS (2235)
138 PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS (2236)
139 EDUCATION TEACHERS (2237)
143 ENGLISH TEACHERS (2238)
144 FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS (2242)
145 LAW TEACHERS (2243)
146 SOCIAL WORK TEACHERS (2244)
147 THEOLOGY TEACHERS (2245)
148 TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL TEACHERS (2246)
149 HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS (2247)
153 TEACHERS, POSTSECONDARY, N.E.C. (2249)
154 POSTSECONDARY TEACHERS, SUBJECT NOT SPECIFIED
------------------------------------------------------------
- teachers, except postsecondary -
(155) THROUGH (165) ARE RECODED TO: 09
155 TEACHERS, PREKINDERGARTEN AND KINDERGARTEN (231)
156 TEACHERS, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (232)
157 TEACHERS, SECONDARY SCHOOL (233)
158 TEACHERS, SPECIAL EDUCATION (235)
159 TEACHERS, N.E.C. (236,239)
163 COUNSELORS, EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL (24)
LIBRARIANS, ARCHIVISTS, AND CURATORS
164 LIBRARIANS (251)
165 ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS (252)
------------------------------------------------------------
- social scientist and urban planners -
(166) THROUGH (173) ARE RECODED TO: 10
166 ECONOMISTS (1912)
167 PSYCHOLOGISTS (1915)
168 SOCIOLOGISTS (1916)
169 SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, N.E.C. (1913, 1914, 1919)
173 URBAN PLANNERS (192)
------------------------------------------------------------
- social, recreation, and religious workers -
(174) THROUGH (177) ARE RECODED TO: 11
174 SOCIAL WORKERS (2032)
175 RECREATION WORKERS (2033)
176 CLERGY (2042)
177 RELIGIOUS WORKERS, N.E.C. (2049)
------------------------------------------------------------
- lawyers and judges -
(178) THROUGH (179) ARE RECODED TO: 12
178 LAWYERS (211)
179 JUDGES (212)
------------------------------------------------------------
- writers, artists, entertainers, and athletes -
(183) THROUGH (199) ARE RECODED TO: 13
183 AUTHORS (321)
184 TECHNICAL WRITERS (398)
185 DESIGNERS (322)
186 MUSICIANS AND COMPOSERS (323)
187 ACTORS AND DIRECTORS (324)
188 PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, CRAFT-ARTISTS, AND ARTIST
PRINTMAKERS (325)
189 PHOTOGRAPHERS (326)
193 DANCERS (327)
194 ARTISTS, PERFORMERS, AND RELATED WORKERS, N.E.C. (328, 329)
195 EDITORS AND REPORTERS (331)
197 PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS (332)
198 ANNOUNCERS (333)
199 ATHLETES (34)
------------------------------------------------------------
TECHNICIANS AND RELATED SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS
Health Technologists and Technicians
(203) THROUGH (208) ARE RECODED TO: 14
203 CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS
(362)
204 DENTAL HYGIENISTS (363)
205 HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS (364)
206 RADIOLOGIC TECHNICIANS (365)
207 LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES (366)
208 HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. (369)
------------------------------------------------------------
Technologists and Technicians, except Health
....................
- engineering and related technologists and technicians -
(213) THROUGH (218) ARE RECODED TO: 15
213 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNICIANS (3711)
214 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS (3712)
215 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS (3713)
216 ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. (3719)
217 DRAFTING OCCUPATIONS (372)
218 SURVEYING AND MAPPING TECHNICIANS (373)
------------------------------------------------------------
- science technicians -
(223) THROUGH (225) ARE RECODED TO: 16
223 BIOLOGICAL TECHNICIANS (382)
224 CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS (3831)
225 SCIENCE TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. (3832, 3833, 384, 389)
------------------------------------------------------------
- technicians, except health, engineering, and science -
(226) THROUGH (235) ARE RECODED TO: 17
226 AIRPLANE PILOTS AND NAVIGATORS (825)
227 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS (392)
228 BROADCAST EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (393)
229 COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS (3971, 3972)
233 TOOL PROGRAMMERS, NUMERICAL CONTROL (3974)
234 LEGAL ASSISTANTS (396)
235 TECHNICIANS, N.E.C. (399)
------------------------------------------------------------
SALES OCCUPATIONS
Supervisors and Proprietors
(243) IS RECODED TO: 18
243 SUPERVISORS AND PROPRIETORS, SALES OCCUPATIONS (40)
Sales Representatives, Finance and Business Services
(253) THROUGH (257) ARE RECODED TO: 18
253 INSURANCE SALES OCCUPATIONS (4122)
254 REAL ESTATE SALES OCCUPATIONS (4123)
255 SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES OCCUPATIONS (4124)
256 ADVERTISING AND RELATED SALES OCCUPATIONS (4153)
257 SALES OCCUPATIONS, OTHER BUSINESS SERVICES (4152)
------------------------------------------------------------
Sales Representatives, Commodities except Retail
(258) THROUGH (259) ARE RECODED TO: 19
258 SALES ENGINEERS (421)
259 SALES REPRESENTATIVES, MINING, MANUFACTURING, AND WHOLESALE (423, 424)
------------------------------------------------------------
Sales Workers, Retail and Personal Services
(263) THROUGH (278) ARE RECODED TO: 20
263 SALES WORKERS, MOTOR VEHICLES AND BOATS (4342, 4344)
264 SALES WORKERS, APPAREL (4346)
265 SALES WORKERS, SHOES (4351)
266 SALES WORKERS, FURNITURE AND HOME FURNISHINGS (4348)
267 SALES WORKERS; RADIO, TELEVISION, HI-FI, AND APPLIANCES (4343, 4352)
268 SALES WORKERS, HARDWARE AND BUILDING SUPPLIES (4353)
269 SALES WORKERS, PARTS (4367)
274 SALES WORKERS, OTHER COMMODITIES (4345, 4347, 4354, 4356, 4359, 4362, 4369)
275 SALES COUNTER CLERKS (4363)
276 CASHIERS (4364)
277 STREET AND DOOR-TO-DOOR SALES WORKERS (4366)
278 NEWS VENDORS (4365)
------------------------------------------------------------
Sales Related Occupations
(283) THROUGH (285) ARE RECODED TO: 21
283 DEMONSTRATORS, PROMOTERS AND MODELS, SALES (445)
284 AUCTIONEERS(447)
285 SALES SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. (444, 446, 449)
------------------------------------------------------------
ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT, (incl. Clerical supervisors)
Clerical Supervisors
(303) THROUGH (307) ARE RECODED TO: 22
303 SUPERVISORS, GENERAL OFFICE (4511, 4513, 4514, 4516, 4519, 4529)
304 SUPERVISORS, COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (4512)
305 SUPERVISORS, FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING (4521)
306 CHIEF COMMUNICATIONS OPERATORS (4523)
307 SUPERVISORS; DISTRIBUTION, SCHEDULING, AND ADJUSTING CLERKS (4522, 4524-4528)
------------------------------------------------------------
Computer Equipment Operators
(308) THROUGH (309) ARE RECODED TO: 23
308 COMPUTER OPERATORS (4612)
309 PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (4613)
------------------------------------------------------------
Secretaries, Stenographers, and Typists
(313) THROUGH (315) ARE RECODED TO: 24
313 SECRETARIES (4622)
314 STENOGRAPHERS (4623)
315 TYPISTS (4624)
------------------------------------------------------------
Information Clerks
(316) THROUGH (323) ARE RECODED TO: 25
316 INTERVIEWERS (4642)
317 HOTEL CLERKS (4643)
318 TRANSPORTATION TICKET AND RESERVATION AGENTS (4644)
319 RECEPTIONISTS (4645)
323 INFORMATION CLERKS, N.E.C. (4649)
------------------------------------------------------------
Records Processing Occupations, except Financial
(325) THROUGH (336) ARE RECODED TO: 26
325 CLASSIFIED-AD CLERKS (4662)
326 CORRESPONDENCE CLERKS (4663)
327 ORDER CLERKS (4664)
328 PERSONNEL CLERKS, EXCEPT PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING (4692)
329 LIBRARY CLERKS (4694)
335 FILE CLERKS (4696)
336 RECORDS CLERKS (4699)
------------------------------------------------------------
Financial Records Processing Occupations
(337) THROUGH (344) ARE RECODED TO: 27
337 BOOKKEEPERS, ACCOUNTING, AND AUDITING CLERKS (4712)
338 PAYROLL AND TIMEKEEPING CLERKS (4713)
339 BILLING CLERKS (4715)
343 COST AND RATE CLERKS (4716)
344 BILLING, POSTING, AND CALCULATING MACHINE OPERATORS (4718)
------------------------------------------------------------
Duplicating, Mail and Other Office Machine Operators
(345) THROUGH (347) ARE RECODED TO: 28
345 DUPLICATING MACHINE OPERATORS (4722)
346 MAIL PREPARING AND PAPER HANDLING MACHINE OPERATORS (4723)
347 OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. (4729)
------------------------------------------------------------
Communications Equipment Operators
(348) THROUGH (353) ARE RECODED TO: 29
348 TELEPHONE OPERATORS (4732)
353 COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS, N.E.C. (4733, 4739)
------------------------------------------------------------
Mail and Message Distributing Occupations
(354) THROUGH (357) ARE RECODED TO: 30
354 POSTAL CLERKS, EXC. MAIL CARRIERS (4742)
355 MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE (4743)
356 MAIL CLERKS, EXC. POSTAL SERVICE (4744)
357 MESSENGERS (4745)
------------------------------------------------------------
Material Recording, Scheduling, and Distributing Clerks
(359) THROUGH (374) ARE RECODED TO: 31
359 DISPATCHERS (4751)
363 PRODUCTION COORDINATORS (4752)
364 TRAFFIC, SHIPPING, AND RECEIVING CLERKS (4753)
365 STOCK AND INVENTORY CLERKS (4754)
366 METER READERS (4755)
368 WEIGHERS, MEASURERS, CHECKERS, AND SAMPLERS (4756, 4757)
373 EXPEDITERS (4758)
374 MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS, N.E.C. (4759)
------------------------------------------------------------
Adjusters and Investigators
(375) THROUGH (378) ARE RECODED TO: 32
375 INSURANCE ADJUSTERS, EXAMINERS, AND INVESTIGATORS (4782)
376 INVESTIGATORS AND ADJUSTERS, EXCEPT INSURANCE (4783)
377 ELIGIBILITY CLERKS, SOCIAL WELFARE (4784)
378 BILL AND ACCOUNT COLLECTORS (4786)
------------------------------------------------------------
Miscellaneous Administrative Support Occupations
(379) THROUGH (389) ARE RECODED TO: 33
379 GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS (463)
383 BANK TELLERS (4791)
384 PROOFREADERS (4792)
385 DATA-ENTRY KEYERS (4793)
386 STATISTICAL CLERKS (4794)
387 TEACHERS' AIDES (4795)
389 ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. (4787, 4799)
------------------------------------------------------------
SERVICE OCCUPATIONS
Private Household Occupations
(403) THROUGH (407) ARE RECODED TO: 34
403 LAUNDERERS AND IRONERS (503)
404 COOKS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD (504)
405 HOUSEKEEPERS AND BUTLERS (505)
406 CHILD CARE WORKERS, PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD (506)
407 PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD CLEANERS AND SERVANTS (502, 507, 509)
------------------------------------------------------------
Protective Service Occupations
....................
-supervisors, protective service occupations-
(413) THROUGH (415) ARE RECODED TO: 35
413 SUPERVISORS, FIREFIGHTING AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS (5111)
414 SUPERVISORS, POLICE AND DETECTIVES (5112)
415 SUPERVISORS, GUARDS (5113)
------------------------------------------------------------
-firefighting and fire prevention occupations-
(416) THROUGH (417) ARE RECODED TO: 35
416 FIRE INSPECTION AND FIRE PREVENTION OCCUPATIONS (5122)
417 FIREFIGHTING OCCUPATIONS (5123)
------------------------------------------------------------
-police and detectives-
(418) THROUGH (424) ARE RECODED TO: 35
418 POLICE AND DETECTIVES, PUBLIC SERVICE (5132)
423 SHERIFFS, BAILIFFS, AND OTHER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS (5134)
424 CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS (5133)
------------------------------------------------------------
-guards-
(425) THROUGH (427) ARE RECODED TO: 35
425 CROSSING GUARDS (5142)
426 GUARDS AND POLICE, EXCEPT PUBLIC SERVICE (5144)
427 PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. (5149)
------------------------------------------------------------
Service Occupations, except Protective and Household
....................
-food preparation and service occupations-
(433) THROUGH (444) ARE RECODED TO: 36
433 SUPERVISORS, FOOD PREPARATION AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS (5211)
434 BARTENDERS (5212)
435 WAITERS AND WAITRESSES (5213)
436 COOKS (5214, 5215)
438 FOOD COUNTER, FOUNTAIN AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS (5216)
439 KITCHEN WORKERS, FOOD PREPARATION (5217)
443 WAITERS'/WAITRESSES' ASSISTANTS (5218)
444 MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATION OCCUPATIONS (5219)
------------------------------------------------------------
-health service occupations-
(445) THROUGH (447) ARE RECODED TO: 37
445 DENTAL ASSISTANTS (5232)
446 HEALTH AIDES, EXCEPT NURSING (5233)
447 NURSING AIDES, ORDERLIES, AND ATTENDANTS (5236)
------------------------------------------------------------
-cleaning and building service occupations, exc. household-
(448) THROUGH (455) ARE RECODED TO: 38
448 SUPERVISORS, CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE WORKKERS (5241)
449 MAIDS AND HOUSEMEN (5242, 5249)
453 JANITORS AND CLEANERS (5244)
454 ELEVATOR OPERATORS (5245)
455 PEST CONTROL OCCUPATIONS (5246)
------------------------------------------------------------
-personal service occupations-
(456) THROUGH (469) ARE RECODED TO: 39
456 SUPERVISORS, PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS (5251)
457 BARBERS (5252)
458 HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS (5253)
459 ATTENDANTS, AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION FACILITIES (5254)
461 GUIDES (5255)
462 USHERS (5256)
463 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ATTENDANTS (5257)
464 BAGGAGE PORTERS AND BELLHOPS (5262)
465 WELFARE SERVICE AIDES (5263)
466 FAMILY CHILD CARE PROVIDERS (PT 5264)
467 EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER'S ASSISTANTS (PT 5264)
468 CHILD CARE WORKERS (PT 5264)
469 PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. (5258, 5269)
------------------------------------------------------------
FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING OCCUPATIONS
Farm Operators and Managers
(473) THROUGH (476) ARE RECODED TO: 40
473 FARMERS, EXCEPT HORTICULTURAL (5512-5514)
474 HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTY FARMERS (5515)
475 MANAGERS, FARMS, EXCEPT HORTICULTURAL (5522-5524)
476 MANAGERS, HORTICULTURAL SPECIALTY FARMS (5525)
------------------------------------------------------------
Other Agricultural and Related Occupations
....................
-farm occupations, except managerial-
(477) THROUGH (484) ARE RECODED TO: 41
477 SUPERVISORS, FARM WORKERS (5611)
479 FARM WORKERS (5612-5617)
483 MARINE LIFE CULTIVATION WORKERS (5618)
484 NURSERY WORKERS (5619)
------------------------------------------------------------
-related agricultural occupations-
(485) THROUGH (489) ARE RECODED TO: 42
485 SUPERVISORS, RELATED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS (5621)
486 GROUNDSKEEPERS AND GARDENERS, EXCEPT FARM (5622)
487 ANIMAL CARETAKERS, EXCEPT FARM (5624)
488 GRADERS AND SORTERS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS (5625)
489 INSPECTORS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS (5627)
------------------------------------------------------------
-forestry and logging occupations-
(494) THROUGH (496) ARE RECODED TO: 43
494 SUPERVISORS, FORESTRY AND LOGGING WORKERS (571)
495 FORESTRY WORKERS, EXCEPT LOGGING (572)
496 TIMBER CUTTING AND LOGGING OCCUPATIONS (573, 579)
------------------------------------------------------------
-fishers, hunters, and trappers-
(497) THROUGH (499) ARE RECODED TO: 43
497 CAPTAINS AND OTHER OFFICERS, FISHING VESSELS (PT 8241)
498 FISHERS (583)
499 HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS (584)
------------------------------------------------------------
PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS
Mechanics and Repairers
....................
-mechanics and repairers supervisors-
(503) IS RECODED TO: 44
503 SUPERVISORS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS (60)
------------------------------------------------------------
-mechanics and repairers, vehicle and mobile equipment-
(505) THROUGH (517) ARE RECODED TO: 44
505 AUTOMOBILE MECHANICS (PT 6111)
506 AUTOMOBILE MECHANIC APPRENTICES (PT 6111)
507 BUS, TRUCK, AND STATIONARY ENGINE MECHANICS (6112)
508 AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANICS (6113)
509 SMALL ENGINE REPAIRERS (6114)
514 AUTOMOBILE BODY AND RELATED REPAIRERS (6115)
515 AIRCRAFT MECHANICS, EXCEPT ENGINE (6116)
516 HEAVY EQUIPMENT MECHANICS (6117)
517 FARM EQUIPMENT MECHANICS (6118)
------------------------------------------------------------
-mechanics and repairers, except
vehicle and mobile equipment-
(518) THROUGH (534) ARE RECODED TO: 45
518 INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY REPAIRERS (613)
519 MACHINERY MAINTENANCE OCCUPATIONS (614)
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS
523 ELECTRONIC REPAIRERS, COMMUNICATIONS AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT (6151, 6153, 6155)
525 DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS (6154)
526 HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE AND POWER TOOL REPAIRERS (6156)
527 TELEPHONE LINE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS (6157)
529 TELEPHONE INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS (6158)
533 MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT REPAIRERS (6152, 6159)
534 HEATING, AIR CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS (616)
------------------------------------------------------------
-miscellaneous mechanics and repairers
(535) THROUGH (549) ARE RECODED TO: 46
535 CAMERA, WATCH, AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS (6171, 6172)
536 LOCKSMITHS AND SAFE REPAIRERS (6173)
538 OFFICE MACHINE REPAIRERS (6174)
539 MECHANICAL CONTROLS AND VALVE REPAIRERS (6175)
543 ELEVATOR INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS (6176)
544 MILLWRIGHTS (6178)
547 SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS, N.E.C. (6177, 6179)
549 NOT SPECIFIED MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS
------------------------------------------------------------
Construction Trades
....................
-supervisors, construction occupations-
(553) THROUGH (558) ARE RECODED TO: 47
553 SUPERVISORS; BRICKMASONS, STONEMASONS, AND TILE SETTERS (6312)
554 SUPERVISORS, CARPENTERS AND RELATED WORKERS (6313)
555 SUPERVISORS, ELECTRICIANS AND POWER TRANSMISSION INSTALLERS (6314)
556 SUPERVISORS; PAINTERS, PAPERHANGERS, AND PLASTERERS (6315)
557 SUPERVISORS; PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS, AND STEAMFITTERS (6316)
558 SUPERVISORS, N.E.C. (6311, 6318)
------------------------------------------------------------
-construction trades, except supervisors-
(563) THROUGH (599) ARE RECODED TO: 48
563 BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS, (PT 6412, PT 6413)
564 BRICKMASON AND STONEMASON APPRENTICES (PT 6412, PT 6413)
565 TILE SETTERS, HARD AND SOFT (6414, PT 6462)
566 CARPET INSTALLERS (PT 6462)
567 CARPENTERS (PT 6422)
569 CARPENTER APPRENTICES (PT 6422)
573 DRYWALL INSTALLERS (6424)
575 ELECTRICIANS (PT 6432)
576 ELECTRICIAN APPRENTICES (PT 6432)
577 ELECTRICAL POWER INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS (6433)
579 PAINTERS, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE (6442)
583 PAPERHANGERS (6443)
584 PLASTERERS (6444)
585 PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS, AND STEAMFITTERS (PT 645)
587 PLUMBER, PIPEFITTER, AND STEAMFITTER APPRENTICES (PT 645)
588 CONCRETE AND TERRAZZO FINISHERS (6463)
589 GLAZIERS (6464)
593 INSULATION WORKERS (6465)
594 PAVING, SURFACING, AND TAMPING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (6466)
595 ROOFERS (6468)
596 SHEETMETAL DUCT INSTALLERS (6472)
597 STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS (6473)
598 DRILLERS, EARTH (6474)
599 CONSTRUCTION TRADES, N.E.C. (6467, 6475, 6476, 6479)
------------------------------------------------------------
Extractive Occupations
(613) THROUGH (617) ARE RECODED TO: 49
613 SUPERVISORS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS (632)
614 DRILLERS, OIL WELL (652)
615 EXPLOSIVES WORKERS (653)
616 MINING MACHINE OPERATORS (654)
617 MINING OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. (656)
------------------------------------------------------------
Precision Production Occupations
....................
-production occupation supervisors-
(628) IS RECODED TO: 50
628 SUPERVISORS, PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS (67, 71)
------------------------------------------------------------
-precision metalworking occupations-
(634) THROUGH (655) ARE RECODED TO: 50
634 TOOL AND DIE MAKERS (PT 6811)
635 TOOL AND DIE MAKER APPRENTICES (PT 6811)
636 PRECISION ASSEMBLERS, METAL (6812)
637 MACHINISTS (PT 6813)
639 MACHINIST APPRENTICES (PT 6813)
643 BOILERMAKERS (6814)
644 PRECISION GRINDERS, FITTERS, AND TOOL SHARPENERS (6816)
645 PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, METAL (6817)
646 LAY-OUT WORKERS (6821)
647 PRECIOUS STONES AND METALS WORKERS (JEWELERS) (6822, 6866)
649 ENGRAVERS, METAL (6823)
653 SHEET METAL WORKERS (PT 6824)
654 SHEET METAL WORKER APPRENTICES (PT 6824)
655 MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION METAL WORKERS (6829)
------------------------------------------------------------
-precision woodworking occupations-
(656) THROUGH (659) ARE RECODED TO: 51
656 PATTERNMAKERS AND MODEL MAKERS, WOOD (6831)
657 CABINET MAKERS AND BENCH CARPENTERS (6832)
658 FURNITURE AND WOOD FINISHERS (6835)
659 MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WOODWORKERS (6839)
------------------------------------------------------------
-precision textile, apparel, and
furnishings machine workers-
(666) THROUGH (674) ARE RECODED TO: 52
666 DRESSMAKERS (PT 6852, PT 7752)
667 TAILORS (PT 6852)
668 UPHOLSTERERS (6853)
669 SHOE REPAIRERS (6854)
674 MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION APPAREL AND FABRIC WORKERS (6856, 6859, PT 7752)
------------------------------------------------------------
-precision workers, assorted materials-
(675) THROUGH (684) ARE RECODED TO: 53
675 HAND MOLDERS AND SHAPERS, EXCEPT JEWELERS (6861)
676 PATTERNMAKERS, LAY-OUT WORKERS, AND CUTTERS (6862)
677 OPTICAL GOODS WORKERS (6864, PT 7477, PT 7677)
678 DENTAL LABORATORY AND MEDICAL APPLIANCE TECHNICIANS (6865)
679 BOOKBINDERS (6844)
683 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLERS (6867)
684 MISCELLANEOUS PRECISION WORKERS, N.E.C. (6869)
------------------------------------------------------------
-precision food production occupations-
(686) THROUGH (688) ARE RECODED TO: 54
686 BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS (6871)
687 BAKERS (6872)
688 FOOD BATCHMAKERS (6873, 6879)
------------------------------------------------------------
-precision inspectors, testers and related workers-
(689) THROUGH (693) ARE RECODED TO: 55
689 INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND GRADERS (6881, 828)
693 ADJUSTERS AND CALIBRATORS (6882)
------------------------------------------------------------
Plant and System Operators
(694) THROUGH (699) ARE RECODED TO: 56
694 WATER AND SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS (691)
695 POWER PLANT OPERATORS (PT 693)
696 STATIONARY ENGINEERS (PT 693, 7668)
699 MISCELLANEOUS PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS (692, 694,695, 696)
------------------------------------------------------------
OPERATORS, FABRICATORS, AND LABORERS
Machine Operators, Assemblers, and Inspectors
....................
-machine operators and tenders, except precision:
metalworking and plastic working machine operators-
(703) THROUGH (717) ARE RECODED TO: 57
703 LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE SET-UP OPERATORS (7312)
704 LATHE AND TURNING MACHINE OPERATORS (7512)
705 MILLING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS (7313, 7513)
706 PUNCHING AND STAMPING PRESS MACHINE OPERATORS (7314, 7317, 7514, 7517)
707 ROLLING MACHINE OPERATORS (7316, 7516)
708 DRILLING AND BORING MACHINE OPERATORS (7318, 7518)
709 GRINDING, ABRADING, BUFFING, AND POLISHING MACHINE OPERATORS (7322, 7324, 7522)
713 FORGING MACHINE OPERATORS (7319, 7519)
714 NUMERICAL CONTROL MACHINE OPERATORS (7326)
715 MISCELLANEOUS METAL, PLASTIC, STONE, AND GLASS WORKING MACHINE OPERATORS (7329, 7529)
717 FABRICATING MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. (7339, 7539)
------------------------------------------------------------
-machine operators and tenders, except precision:
metal and plastic processing machine operators-
(719) THROUGH (725) ARE RECODED TO: 58
719 MOLDING AND CASTING MACHINE OPERATORS (7315, 7342, 7515, 7542)
723 METAL PLATING MACHINE OPERATORS (7343, 7543)
724 HEAT TREATING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (7344, 7544)
725 MISCELLANEOUS METAL AND PLASTIC PROCESSING MACHINE OPERATORS (7349, 7549)
------------------------------------------------------------
-machine operators and tenders, except precision:
woodworking machine operators-
(726) THROUGH (733) ARE RECODED TO: 59
726 WOOD LATHE, ROUTING AND PLANING MACHINE OPERATORS (7431, 7432, 7631, 7632)
727 SAWING MACHINE OPERATORS (7433, 7633)
728 SHAPING AND JOINING MACHINE OPERATORS (7435, 7635)
729 NAILING AND TACKING MACHINE OPERATORS (7636)
733 MISCELLANEOUS WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS (7434, 7439, 7634, 7639)
------------------------------------------------------------
-machine operators and tenders, except precision:
printing machine operators-
(734) THROUGH (737) ARE RECODED TO: 60
734 PRINTING PRESS OPERATORS (7443, 7643)
735 PHOTOENGRAVERS AND LITHOGRAPHERS (6842, 7444, 7644)
736 TYPESETTERS AND COMPOSITORS (6841, 7642)
737 MISCELLANEOUS PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS (6849, 7449, 7649)
------------------------------------------------------------
-machine operators and tenders, except precision:
textile, apparel, and furnishings machine operators-
(738) THROUGH (749) ARE RECODED TO: 61
738 WINDING AND TWISTING MACHINE OPERATORS (7451, 7651)
739 KNITTING, LOOPING, TAPING, AND WEAVING MACHINE OPERATORS (7452, 7652)
743 TEXTILE CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS (7654)
744 TEXTILE SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS (7655)
745 SHOE MACHINE OPERATORS (7656)
747 PRESSING MACHINE OPERATORS (7657)
748 LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING MACHINE OPERATORS (6855, 7658)
749 MISCELLANEOUS TEXTILE MACHINE OPERATORS (7459, 7659)
------------------------------------------------------------
-machine operators and tenders, except precision:
machine operators, assorted materials-
(753) THROUGH (779) ARE RECODED TO: 62
753 CEMENTING AND GLUING MACHINE OPERATORS (7661)
754 PACKAGING AND FILLING MACHINE OPERATORS (7462, 7662)
755 EXTRUDING AND FORMING MACHINE OPERATORS (7463, 7663)
756 MIXING AND BLENDING MACHINE OPERATORS (7664)
757 SEPARATING, FILTERING, AND CLARIFYING MACHINE OPERATORS (7476, 7666, 7676))
758 COMPRESSING AND COMPACTING MACHINE OPERATORS (7467, 7667)
759 PAINTING AND PAINT SPRAYING MACHINE OPERATORS (7669)
763 ROASTING AND BAKING MACHINE OPERATORS, FOOD (7472, 7672)
764 WASHING, CLEANING, AND PICKLING MACHINE OPERATORS (7673)
765 FOLDING MACHINE OPERATORS (7474, 7674)
766 FURNACE, KILN, AND OVEN OPERATORS, EXC. FOOD (7675)
768 CRUSHING AND GRINDING MACHINE OPERATORS (PT 7477, PT 7677)
769 SLICING AND CUTTING MACHINE OPERATORS (7478, 7678)
773 MOTION PICTURE PROJECTIONISTS (PT 7479)
774 PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS MACHINE OPERATORS (6863, 6868, 7671)
777 MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE OPERATORS, N.E.C. (PT 7479,7665, 7679)
779 MACHINE OPERATORS, NOT SPECIFIED
------------------------------------------------------------
-fabricators, assemblers, and hand working occupations-
(783) THROUGH (795) ARE RECODED TO: 63
783 WELDERS AND CUTTERS (7332, 7532, 7714)
784 SOLDERERS AND BRAZERS (7333, 7533, 7717)
785 ASSEMBLERS (772,774)
786 HAND CUTTING AND TRIMMING OCCUPATIONS (7753)
787 HAND MOLDING, CASTING, AND FORMING OCCUPATIONS (7754, 7755)
789 HAND PAINTING, COATING, AND DECORATING OCCUPATIONS (7756)
793 HAND ENGRAVING AND PRINTING OCCUPATIONS (7757)
795 MISCELLANEOUS HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS (7759)
------------------------------------------------------------
-production inspectors, testers, samplers, and weighers-
(796) THROUGH (799) ARE RECODED TO: 64
796 PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, CHECKERS, AND EXAMINERS (782, 787)
797 PRODUCTION TESTERS (783)
798 PRODUCTION SAMPLERS AND WEIGHERS (784)
799 GRADERS AND SORTERS, EXCEPT AGRICULTURAL (785)
------------------------------------------------------------
Transportation and Material Moving Occupations
....................
-motor vehicle operators-
(803) THROUGH (814) ARE RECODED TO: 65
803 SUPERVISORS, MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS (8111)
804 TRUCK DRIVERS (8212-8214)
806 DRIVER-SALES WORKERS (8218)
808 BUS DRIVERS (8215)
809 TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS (8216)
813 PARKING LOT ATTENDANTS (874)
814 MOTOR TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS, N.E.C. (8219)
------------------------------------------------------------
Transportation Occupations, except Motor Vehicles
....................
-rail transportation occupations-
(823) THROUGH (826) ARE RECODED TO: 66
823 RAILROAD CONDUCTORS AND YARDMASTERS (8113)
824 LOCOMOTIVE OPERATING OCCUPATIONS (8232)
825 RAILROAD BRAKE, SIGNAL, AND SWITCH OPERATORS (8233)
826 RAIL VEHICLE OPERATORS, N.E.C. (8239)
------------------------------------------------------------
-water transportation occupations-
(828) THROUGH (834) ARE RECODED TO: 66
828 SHIP CAPTAINS AND MATES, EXCEPT FISHING BOATS (PT 8241, 8242)
829 SAILORS AND DECKHANDS (8243)
833 MARINE ENGINEERS (8244)
834 BRIDGE, LOCK, AND LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS (8245)
------------------------------------------------------------
Material Moving Equipment Operators
(843) THROUGH (859) ARE RECODED TO: 67
843 SUPERVISORS, MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (812)
844 OPERATING ENGINEERS (8312)
845 LONGSHORE EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (8313)
848 HOIST AND WINCH OPERATORS (8314)
849 CRANE AND TOWER OPERATORS (8315)
853 EXCAVATING AND LOADING MACHINE OPERATORS (8316)
855 GRADER, DOZER, AND SCRAPER OPERATORS (8317)
856 INDUSTRIAL TRUCK AND TRACTOR EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (8318)
859 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS (8319)
------------------------------------------------------------
Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers
(864) THROUGH (873) ARE RECODED TO: 68
864 SUPERVISORS; HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, AND LABORERS, N.E.C. (85)
865 HELPERS, MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS (863)
HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION AND EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS
866 HELPERS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES (8641-8645, 8648)
867 HELPERS, SURVEYOR (8646)
868 HELPERS, EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS (865)
869 CONSTRUCTION LABORERS (871)
873 PRODUCTION HELPERS (861, 862)
------------------------------------------------------------
Freight, Stock, and Material Handlers
(875) THROUGH (883) ARE RECODED TO: 69
875 GARBAGE COLLECTORS (8722)
876 STEVEDORES (8723)
877 STOCK HANDLERS AND BAGGERS (8724)
878 MACHINE FEEDERS AND OFFBEARERS (8725)
883 FREIGHT, STOCK, AND MATERIAL HANDLERS, N.E.C. (8726)
------------------------------------------------------------
(885) THROUGH (889) ARE RECODED TO: 70
885 GARAGE AND SERVICE STATION RELATED OCCUPATIONS (873)
887 VEHICLE WASHERS AND EQUIPMENT CLEANERS (875)
888 HAND PACKERS AND PACKAGERS (8761)
889 LABORERS, EXCEPT CONSTRUCTION (8769)
------------------------------------------------------------
(903) THROUGH (905) ARE RECODED TO: 71
903 COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND WARRANT OFFICERS
904 NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND OTHER ENLISTED PERSONNEL
905 MILITARY OCCUPATION, RANK NOT SPECIFIED
------------------------------------------------------------
(999) IS RECODED TO: 99
999 NA
Note 6: Industrial Classification System (1990 Census)
Numbers in parentheses following the industry categories are the 1987 SIC definitions. The abbreviation "pt" means "part" and "n.e.c." means "not elsewhere classified."

1990
Census Industry category code
AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND FISHERIES
010 Agricultural production, crops (01)
011 Agricultural production, livestock (02)
012 Veterinary services (074)
020 Landscape and horticultural services (078)
030 Agricultural services, n.e.c. (071, 072, 075, 076)
031 Forestry (08)
032 Fishing, hunting, and trapping (09)
MINING
040 Metal mining (10)
041 Coal mining (12)
042 Oil and gas extraction (13)
050 Nonmetallic mining and quarrying, except fuels (14)
060 CONSTRUCTION (15, 16, 17)
MANUFACTURING
Nondurable Goods
Food and kindred products
100 Meat products (201)
101 Dairy products (202)
102 Canned, frozen, and preserved fruits and vegetables (203)
110 Grain mill products (204)
111 Bakery products (205)
112 Sugar and confectionery products (206)
120 Beverage industries (208)
121 Miscellaneous food preparations and kindred products (207, 209)
122 Not specified food industries
130 Tobacco manufactures (21)
Textile mill products
132 Knitting mills (225)
140 Dyeing and finishing textiles, except wool and knit goods (226)
141 Carpets and rugs (227)
142 Yarn, thread, and fabric mills (221-224, 228)
150 Miscellaneous textile mill products (229)
Apparel and other finished textile products
151 Apparel and accessories, except knit (231-238)
152 Miscellaneous fabricated textile products (239)
Paper and allied products
160 Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills (261-263)
161 Miscellaneous paper and pulp products (267)
162 Paperboard containers and boxes (265)
Printing, publishing, and allied industries
171 Newspaper publishing and printing (271)
172 Printing, publishing, and allied industries, except newspapers (272-279)
Chemicals and allied products
180 Plastics, synthetics, and resins (282)
181 Drugs (283)
182 Soaps and cosmetics (284)
190 Paints, varnishes, and related products (285)
191 Agricultural chemicals (287)
192 Industrial and miscellaneous chemicals (281, 286, 289)
Petroleum and coal products
200 Petroleum refining (291)
201 Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products (295, 299)
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products
210 Tires and inner tubes (301)
211 Other rubber products, and plastics footwear and belting (302-306)
212 Miscellaneous plastics products (308)
Leather and leather products
220 Leather tanning and finishing (311)
221 Footwear, except rubber and plastic (313, 314)
222 Leather products, except footwear (315-317, 319)
Durable Goods
Lumber and wood products, except furniture
230 Logging (241)
231 Sawmills, planing mills, and millwork (242, 243)
232 Wood buildings and mobile homes (245)
241 Miscellaneous wood products (244,249)
242 Furniture and fixtures (25)
Stone, clay, glass, and concrete products
250 Glass and glass products (321-323)
251 Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster products (324, 327)
252 Structural clay products (325)
261 Pottery and related products (326)
262 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products (328, 329)
Metal industries
270 Blast furnaces, steelworks, rolling and finishing mills (331)
271 Iron and steel foundries (332)
272 Primary aluminum industries (3334, part 334, 3353-3355, 3363, 3365)
280 Other primary metal industries (3331, 3339, part 334, 3351, 3356, 3357, 3364, 3366, 3369, 339)
281 Cutlery, handtools, and general hardware (342)
282 Fabricated structural metal products (344)
290 Screw machine products (345)
291 Metal forgings and stampings (346)
292 Ordnance (348)
300 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products (341, 343, 347, 349)
301 Not specified metal industries
Machinery and computing equipment
310 Engines and turbines (351)
311 Farm machinery and equipment (352)
312 Construction and material handling machines (353)
320 Metalworking machinery (354)
321 Office and accounting machines (3578, 3579)
322 Computers and related equipment (3571-3577)
331 Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c. (355, 356, 358, 359)
332 Not specified machinery
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies
340 Household appliances (363)
341 Radio, TV, and communication equipment (365, 366)
342 Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies, n.e.c. (361, 362, 364, 367, 369)
350 Not specified electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies
Transportation Equipment
351 Motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment (371)
352 Aircraft and parts (372)
360 Ship and boat building and repairing (373)
361 Railroad locomotives and equipment (374)
362 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts (376)
370 Cycles and miscellaneous transportation equipment (375, 379)
Professional and photographic equipment, and watches
371 Scientific and controlling instruments (381, 382, exc. 3827)
372 Medical, dental, and optical instruments and supplies (3827, 384, 385)
380 Photographic equipment and supplies (386)
381 Watches, clocks, and clockwork operated devices (387)
390 Toys, amusement, and sporting goods (394)
391 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries (39 exc. 394)
392 Not specified manufacturing industries
TRANPORTATION, COMMUNICATIONS, AND OTHER PUBLIC UTILITIES
Transportation
400 Railroads (40)
401 Bus service and urban transit (41, except 412)
402 Taxicab service (412)
410 Trucking service (421, 423)
411 Warehousing and storage (422)
412 U.S. Postal Service (43)
420 Water transportation (44)
421 Air transportation (45)
422 Pipe lines, except natural gas (46)
432 Services incidental to transportation (47)
Communications
440 Radio and television broadcasting and cable (483, 484)
441 Telephone communications (481)
442 Telegraph and miscellaneous communications services (482, 489)
Utilities and sanitary services
450 Electric light and power (491)
451 Gas and steam supply systems (492, 496)
452 Electric and gas, and other combinations (493)
470 Water supply and irrigation (494, 497)
471 Sanitary services (495)
472 Not specified utilities
WHOLESALE TRADE
Durable Goods
500 Motor vehicles and equipment (501)
501 Furniture and home furnishings (502)
502 Lumber and construction materials (503)
510 Professional and commercial equipment and supplies (504)
511 Metals and minerals, except petroleum (505)
512 Electrical goods (506)
521 Hardware, plumbing and heating supplies (507)
530 Machinery, equipment, and supplies (508)
531 Scrap and waste materials (5093)
532 Miscellaneous wholesale, durable goods (509, exc. 5093)
Nondurable Goods
540 Paper and paper products (511)
541 Drugs, chemicals and allied products (512, 516)
542 Apparel, fabrics, and notions (513)
550 Groceries and related products (514)
551 Farm-product raw materials (515)
552 Petroleum products (517)
560 Alcoholic beverages (518)
561 Farm supplies (5191)
562 Miscellaneous wholesale, nondurable goods (5192-5199)
571 Not specified wholesale trade
RETAIL TRADE
580 Lumber and building material retailing (521, 523)
581 Hardware stores (525)
582 Retail nurseries and garden stores (526)
590 Mobile home dealers (527)
591 Department stores (531)
592 Variety stores (533)
600 Miscellaneous general merchandise stores (539)
601 Grocery stores (541)
602 Dairy products stores (545)
610 Retail bakeries (546)
611 Food stores, n.e.c. (542, 543, 544, 549)
612 Motor vehicle dealers (551, 552)
620 Auto and home supply stores (553)
621 Gasoline service stations (554)
622 Miscellaneous vehicle dealers (555, 556, 557, 559)
623 Apparel and accessory stores, except shoe (56, except 566)
630 Shoe stores (566)
631 Furniture and home furnishings stores (571)
632 Household appliance stores (572)
633 Radio, TV, and computer stores (5731, 5734)
640 Music stores (5735, 5736)
641 Eating and drinking places (58)
642 Drug stores (591)
650 Liquor stores (592)
651 Sporting goods, bicycles, and hobby stores (5941, 5945, 5946)
652 Book and stationery stores (5942, 5943)
660 Jewelry stores (5944)
661 Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops (5947)
662 Sewing, needlework and piece goods stores (5949)
663 Catalog and mail order houses (5961)
670 Vending machine operators (5962)
671 Direct selling establishments (5963)
672 Fuel dealers (598)
681 Retail florists (5992)
682 Miscellaneous retail stores (593, 5948, 5993-5995, 5999)
691 Not specified retail trade
FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE
700 Banking (60 exc. 603 and 606)
701 Savings institutions, including credit unions (603, 606)
702 Credit agencies, n.e.c. (61)
710 Security, commodity brokerage, and investment companies (62, 67)
711 Insurance (63, 64)
712 Real estate, including real estate-insurance offices (65)
BUSINESS AND REPAIR SERVICES
721 Advertising (731)
722 Services to dwellings and other buildings (734)
731 Personnel supply services (736)
732 Computer and data processing services (737)
740 Detective and protective services (7381, 7382)
741 Business services, n.e.c. (732, 733, 735, 7383-7389
742 Automotive rental and leasing, without drivers (751)
750 Automobile parking and carwashes (752, 7542)
751 Automotive repair and related services (753, 7549)
752 Electrical repair shops (762, 7694)
760 Miscellaneous repair services (763, 764, 7692, 7699)
PERSONAL SERVICES
761 Private households (88)
762 Hotels and motels (701)
770 Lodging places, except hotels and motels (702, 703, 704)
771 Laundry, cleaning, and garment services (721 exc. part 7219)
772 Beauty shops (723)
780 Barber shops (724)
781 Funeral service and crematories (726)
782 Shoe repair shops (725)
790 Dressmaking shops (part 7219)
791 Miscellaneous personal services (722, 729)
ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES
800 Theaters and motion pictures (781-783, 792)
801 Video tape rental (784)
802 Bowling centers (793)
810 Miscellaneous entertainment and recreation services (791, 794, 799)
PROFESSIONAL AND RELATED SERVICES
812 Offices and clinics of physicians (801, 803)
820 Offices and clinics of dentists (802)
821 Offices and clinics of chiropractors (8041)
822 Offices and clinics of optometrists (8042)
830 Offices and clinics of health practitioners, n.e.c. (8043, 8049)
831 Hospitals (806)
832 Nursing and personal care facilities (805)
840 Health services, n.e.c. (807, 808, 809)
841 Legal services (81)
842 Elementary and secondary schools (821)
850 Colleges and universities (822)
851 Vocational schools (824)
852 Libraries (823)
860 Educational services, n.e.c. (829)
861 Job training and vocational rehabilitation services (833)
862 Child day care services (part 835)
863 Family child care homes (part 835)
870 Residential care facilities, without nursing (836)
871 Social services, n.e.c. (832, 839)
872 Museums, art galleries, and zoos (84)
873 Labor unions (863)
880 Religious organizations (866)
881 Membership organizations, n.e.c. (861, 862, 864, 865, 869)
882 Engineering, architectural, and surveying services (871)
890 Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services (872)
891 Research, development, and testing services (873)
892 Management and public relations services (874)
893 Miscellaneous professional and related services (899)
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
900 Executive and legislative offices (911-913)
901 General government, n.e.c. (919)
910 Justice, public order, and safety (92)
921 Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy (93)
922 Administration of human resources programs (94)
930 Administration of environmental quality and housing programs (95)
931 Administration of economic programs (96)
932 National security and international affairs (97)
ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY
Armed Forces
940 Army
941 Air Force
942 Navy
950 Marines
951 Coast Guard
952 Armed Forces, Branch not specified
960 Military Reserves or National Guard
EXPERIENCED UNEMPLOYED NOT CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRY
992 Last worked in 1984 or earlier
Note 7: Ethnicity/Nationality
WESTERN HEMISPHERE
-------------
North America
-------------
01. American Indian, tribal mentions
02. Canadian; not specified as French-Canadian (03)
03. Canadian, of French origin
04. Mexican (excluding explicit mention of "Chicano", "Mexican-American")
05. Central American
-----------
West Indies
-----------
07. Barbados
08. Cuban
09. Dominican Republic
10. Haitian
11. Jamaican
12. Puerto Rican
13. West Indian--not from one of the above countries
14. West Indian--NA which country
-------------
South America
-------------
16. South American--any country
EUROPE
-------------
British Isles
-------------
18. English, British
19. Irish (not specified as from Northern Ireland, Ulster--22)
20. Scottish
21. Welsh
22. From Northern Ireland (Ulster)
23. Scot-Irish
24. From British Isles; from two or more countries of the British Isles
--------------
Western Europe
--------------
26. Austrian
27. Belgian
28. French
29. German; also Pennsylvania Dutch
30. Luxembourg
31. Netherlands, Holland; Dutch
32. Swiss
33. From Western Europe; two or more countries of Western Europe
-----------
Scandinavia
-----------
35. Danish
36. Finn, Finnish
37. Norwegian
38. Swedish
39. Icelander
40. Scandinavian; reference to two or more Scandinavian countries
---------------------------------------------------
Multiple - Western Europe/Scandinavia/British Isles
---------------------------------------------------
41. Reference to two or more countries from combination of the following areas: British Isles, Western Europe, Scandinavia, Mediterranean countries, Greece
--------------
Eastern Europe
--------------
43. Czechoslovakian, Slavic
44. Estonian
45. Hungarian
46. Latvian
47. Lithuanian
48. Polish
49. Russian; from U.S.S.R.
50. Ukrainian
51. Eastern Europe; reference to two or more countries of Eastern Europe
----------------
Balkan Countries
----------------
53. Albanian
54. Bulgarian
55. Greek
56. Rumanian
57. Yugoslavian
58. Mention of two or more Balkan Countries
-----------------------
Mediterranean Countries
-----------------------
60. Italian
61. Portuguese
62. Spanish
63. Maltese
-----------------
Multiple - Europe
-----------------
64. European; general mention of Europe; reference to two or more European countries of Europe not codeable above ASIA (exc. NEAR EAST)
65. Pakistani
66. Afghan
67. Indian (not American Indian, code 01)
68. Southeast Asia--from Indochina, Thailand, Malaya, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia
69. Chinese
70. Japanese; Japanese American
71. Korean
72. Asian
NEAR EAST
73. Egyptian
74. Iranian, Persian
75. Iraqi
76. Israeli
77. Jordanian
78. Lebanese
79. Arab, Arabian, Saudi Arabian
80. Syrian
81. Turk, Turkish
82. Armenian
AFRICA
83. African; from any African country excluding only Egypt (U.A.R.); South African (formerly 90)
OCEANIA
84. South Pacific Islander other than 85 (incl native Hawaiian)
85. Australian, New Zealander, Tasmanian
ETHNIC GROUPS
86. White, Caucasian
87. Black; Negro; American Black; African American
88. Chicano; Mexican-American; Hispanic; Latin American
89. Asian-American (exc. specifically Japanese American, 70)
OTHER MISCELLANEOUS **
90. None; neither (response to 'choice' question)
91. Catholic
92. Protestant
93. Jewish
94. Other religious groups
95. Both/all of them (response to 'choice' question only
96. 'American'; 'Just American'
97. Other group; combinations not codeable above
MISSING DATA **
98. DK
99. RF
00. NA; no further mention
** these codes are slightly revised in 2000
Note 8: 1998 Census Definitions
THIS NOTE CONTAINS DEFINITIONS OF THE FOLLOWING TERMS USED BY THE 1990 U.S. CENSUS OF POPULATION:

Metropolitan Statistical Areas
Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas
Urbanized Areas
Places
Incorporated Places
Unincorporated Places
1. "METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS (MSA's):"
The general concept of a metropolitan area is one of a large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus.


In 1990 the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Census have used the term Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) for what in 1980 was referred to as Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). An attempt has been made by the study staff to be consistent in using the newer terms in the current documentation and definitions. The definitions of characteristics to be classified as a metropolitan area have remained fairly consistent--with only minor changes between 1980 and 1990. However, due to changes in population size and density, employment, commuting and other behavior which defines metropolitan areas, the specific geographical composition of any given metropolitan area has, of course, frequently changed. The specific MSA title may also have changed as to which cities are named and in what order.


Each MSA has one or more central counties containing the area's main population concentration: an urbanized area with at least 50,000 inhabitants. An MSA may also include outlying counties that have close economic and social relationships with the central counties. The outlying counties must have a specified level of commuting to the central counties and must also meet certain standards regarding metropolitan character, such as population density, urban population and population growth. In New England, MSA's are composed of cities and towns rather than whole counties.


The population living in MSA's may also be referred to as the metropolitan population. The population is subdivided into "inside central city (or cities)" and "outside central city (or cities)." (The population living outside MSA's constitutes the non-metropolitan population.) Most MSA's have one to three CENTRAL CITIES that are named in the census title of the MSA.


2. "CONSOLIDATED METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS (CMSA's):"
In some parts of the country, metropolitan development has progressed to the point that adjoining MSA's are themselves socially and economically interrelated. These areas are designated consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSA's) by the Office of Management and Budget, and are defined using standards included as part of the new MSA standards described above. MSA's that are a part of a CMSA are referred to as primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSA's).


Definitions of the six largest CMSA's:
NEW YORK-NORTHERN NEW JERSEY-LONG ISLAND, NY-NJ-CT, CMSA
Bergen-Passaic, NJ PMSA
Bridgeport-Milford, CT PMSA
Danbury, CT PMSA Jersey City, NJ PMSA
Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon, NJ PMSA
Monmouth-Ocean NJ PMSA Nassau-Suffolk, NY
PMSA* New York, NY PMSA*
Newark, NJ PMSA*
Norwalk, CT PMSA
Orange County, NY PMSA
Stamford, CT PMSA
LOS ANGELES-ANAHEIM-RIVERSIDE, CA, CMSA
Anaheim-Santa Ana, CA PMSA*
Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA PMSA*
Oxnard-Ventura, CA PMSA
Riverside-San Bernardino, CA PMSA*
CHICAGO-GARY-LAKE COUNTY (IL), IL-IN-WI CMSA
Aurora-Elgin, IL PMSA* (Kane Co part only)
Chicago, IL PMSA*
Gary-Hammond, IN PMSA
Joliet, IL PMSA* (Will Co part only)
Kenosha, WI PMSA
Lake County, IL PMSA*
SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND-SAN JOSE, CA, CMSA
Oakland, CA PMSA*
San Francisco, CA PMSA*
San Jose, CA PMSA
Santa Cruz, CA PMSA
Santa Rosa-Petaluma, CA PMSA
Vallejo-Fairfield-Napa, CA PMSA
PHILADELPHIA-WILMINGTON-TRENTON, PA-NJ-DE-MD, CMSA
Philadelphia, PA-NJ, PMSA*
Trenton, NJ PMSA
Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton, NJ PMSA
Wilmington, DE-NJ-MD PMSA
DETROIT-ANN ARBOR, MI, CMSA
Ann Arbor, MI PMSA
Detroit, MI PMSA*
* In the SRC 1980 National Sample (1992 NES sample). For the purpose of size and distance coding of suburbs and non-MSAs, the central cities of the six largest CMSAs are listed as:


1. New York City (Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens), NY, Elizabeth, NJ and Newark, NJ
2. Los Angeles, Long Beach, Pasadena, Pomona, Burbank, Anaheim, Santa Ana, Riverside, San Bernardino and Palm Springs, CA.
3. Chicago, Evanston and Chicago Heights, Aurora, Elgin, Joliet, Waukegan and North Chicago, IL
4. San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley and Livermore, CA
5. Philadelphia and Norristown, PA and Camden, NJ
6. Detroit, Dearborn, Pontiac and Port Huron, MI
Both the CMSA definitions and the central city designations above are from Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 1990, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC (Jun 1990) (PB90-214420)


3. "URBANIZED AREAS:"
The major objective of the Census Bureau in delineating urbanized areas is to provide a better separation of urban and rural population in the vicinity of large cities. An urbanized area consists of a central city or cities, and surrounding closely settled territory ("urban fringe").


4. "PLACES:"
Two types of places are recognized in the census reports--incorporated places and unincorporated places, defined as follows:


5. "INCORPORATED PLACES:"
These are political units incorporated as cities, boroughs, towns and villages with the following exceptions: (a) boroughs in Alaska; and (b) towns in New York, Wisconsin and the New England states.


6. "UNINCORPORATED PLACES:"
The Census Bureau has delineated boundaries for closely settled population centers without corporate limits. Each place so delineated possesses a definite nucleus of residences and has its boundaries drawn to include, if feasible, all the surrounding closely settled area. These are called Census Designated Places (CDP's).
Note 9: D2000 Census NECMA/SMSA Interview Location
[360. ANAHEIM-SANTA ANA-GARDEN GROVE, CA 520. ATLANTA, GA 560. ATLANTIC CITY, NJ 720. BALTIMORE, MD 875 BERGEN-PASSIAC, NJ PMSA (FORMER CODE AND TITLE: 6040 PATERSON-CLIFTON-PASSAIC, NJ 1000. BIRMINGHAM, AL 1123 BOSTON-LAWRENCE-SALEM-LOWELL-BROCKTON, MA NECMA 1125 BOULDER-LONGMONT, CO PMSA 1145 BRAZORIA, TX PMSA 1280. BUFFALO, NY 1600. CHICAGO, IL 1680. CLEVELAND OH 1800. COLUMBUS, GA-AL 1920. DALLAS-FT WORTH, TX 2000. DAYTON, OH 2080. DENVER-BOULDER, CO 2120. DES MOINES, IA 2160. DETROIT, MI 2400. EUGENE-SPRINGFIELD, OR 2760. FORT WAYNE, IN 2800. FORT WORTH-ARLINGTON TX, PMSA 2840. FRESNO, CA 3000. GRAND RAPIDS, MI 3360. HOUSTON, TX 3600. JACKSONVILLE, FL 3760. KANSAS CITY, MO-KS 3840. KNOXVILLE, TN 3965 LAKE COUNTY, IL PMSA 3980. LAKELAND-WINTER HAVEN, FL 4480. LOS ANGELES-LONG BEACH, CA 4720. MADISON WI 4763 MANCHESTER-NASHUA, NH NECMA 4880. MCALLEN-PHARR-EDINBURGH, TX 5000. MIAMI, FL 5015 MIDDLESEX-SOMERSET-HUNTERDON, NJ PMSA (FORMER CODE AND TITLE: 5460 NEW BRUNSWICK-PERTH AMBOY-SAYRE MILWAUKEE, WI 5120. MINNEAPOLIS-ST PAUL, MN-WI 5350. NASHUA, NH PMSA 5380. NASSAU-SUFFOLK, NY 5480. NEW HAVEN-WEST HAVEN, CT 5483 NEW HAVEN-WATERBURY-MERIDEN, CT NECMA 5600. NEW YORK, NY-NJ 5640. NEWARK, NJ 5700. NIAGARA FALLS, NY PMSA 5775 OAKLAND, CA PMSA 6160. PHILADELPHIA, PA-NJ 6200. PHOENIX, AZ 6280. PITTSBURGH, PA 6453 PORTSMOUTH-DOVER-ROCHESTER, NH NECMA 6760. RICHMOND, VA 6780. RIVERSIDE-SAN BERNARDINO, ONTARIO, CA 6920. SACRAMENTO, CA (1990 MSA DEFINITION 6960. SAGINAW, MI 7040. ST. LOUIS, MO-IL 7160. SALT LAKE CITY-OGDEN, UT MSA 7360. SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND,CA 7600. SEATTLE-EVERETT, WA 8003 SPRINGFIELD, MA NECMA 8080. STEUBENVILLE-WIERTON, OH-WV 8200. TACOMA, WA 8800. WACO, TX 8840. WASHINGTON, DC-MD-VA 9000. WHEELING, WV-OH 9243 WORCESTER-FITCHBURN-LEOMINSTER, MA NECMA 0000. INAP; LOCATION NOT IN SMSA (MSA/ NECMA 9996 TELEPHONE SAMPLE (RDD)