Party Variation in Religiosity and Womens Leadership: Arab Countries Dataset

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These data were collected for a study of how the characteristics of political parties influence women's chances in assuming leadership positions within the parties' inner structures. Data were compiled by Fatima Sbaity Kassem for a case-study of Lebanon and by national and local researchers for 25 other countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The researchers collected raw data on women in politics from party administrators and government officials. Researchers gathered information about parties' year of origin, number of seats in parliament, political platform, and all gender-disaggregated party data (in percentages) on overall party membership, shares in executive and decision-making bodies, and nominations on electoral lists. A key variable measures party religiosity, which refers to the religious components on their political platforms or the extent to which religion penetrates their political agendas.

Only parties that have at least one seat in any of the last three parliaments were included. These are referred to as ‘relevant’ parties. The four data sets combined cover 330 political parties in Lebanon plus 12 other Arab countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen), seven non-Arab Muslim-majority countries (Albania, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Indonesia, Senegal, and Turkey), five European countries with dominant Christian democratic parties (Austria, Belgium, Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands), and Israel.

Data File
Cases: 163
Variables: 19
Weight Variable: None
Data Collection
Date Collected: January 2008 through December 2010
Funded By
Fatima Sbaity Kassem
Collection Procedures
Data were collected in person and via one-on-one interviews with party administrators, officials, and elites.
Sampling Procedures
This study covered 26 countries in Asia, Africa and Europe which: (1) have comparable ranking on democracy in Polity IV; (2) hold periodic elections; and (3) allow parties to form and compete. Countries in the Arab and non-Arab Muslim-majority data sets are those with more than 50 percent Muslim populations. The five European countries are the Kalyvas set that have dominant Christian democratic parties. Israel is the only country with Jewish political parties. Only the countries that hold periodic elections and allow parties to form in the Arab and non-Arab Muslim-majority (more than 50 percent of population) are covered in the datasets. Within these countries and guided by Sartori, only “relevant” political parties are covered; i.e. those that occupy at least one seat in any of the last three parliaments in the countries in question.
Principal Investigators
Fatima Sbaity Kassem

Research assistants: Mona Fadhel (Bahrain), Fatouma Hadji Djaffar (Comoros), Amina Said Chire (Djibouti), Nahed Nassr (Egypt), Raedah Farahat (Jordan), Lubna Al-Kazi (Kuwait), Ely Cheikh Ould Aghailass (Mauritania), Idriss Lagrini (Morocco), Mohamed Saadi (Morocco), Mohamed El-Ghali (Morocco), Sabah Ikhmayees (Palestine), Boutheina Gribaa (Tunisia), Rashida Hamadani (Yemen), Jeta Katro (Albania), Hamid Awaludin (Indonesia), Ihsan Ali Fauzi (Indonesia), Selly Ba (Senegal), Penda Mbow (Senegal), Serpil Cakir (Turkey), Alten Ayken (Turkey), Zakir Hossain (Bangladesh), Mirjana Penava (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Palwasha Hassan (Afghanistan), Ulrike Felber (Austria), Olaf Boehnke (Germany), Marina Adrianopoli (Italy), Michele Pecora (Italy), Christian DeClercq (Belgium), Mirte Postma (Netherlands), Hanna Lerner (Israel), Noa On (Israel)
Party identification
ALGERIA

ALG01 National Liberation Front
ALG02 National Rally for Democracy
ALG03 El-Islah (MRN/MI)
ALG04 HAMAS
ALG05 Workers’ Party (PT)
ALG06 National Front (FNA)
ALG07 El-Nahda
ALG08 Renewal (PRA)
ALG09 National Entente (MEN)
ALG10 Front of Socialist Forces
ALG11 Rally for Culture & Democracy
ALG13 Movement for Democracy in Algeria (MDA)
ALG13 Arouch Citizens
ALG14 Islamic Salvation (FIS)

BAHRAIN

BAH01 National Democratic Action Society (Wa'd )
BAH02 National Conciliation (Alwefaq )
BAH03 National Democratic Rally
BAH04 Islamic Action Society
BAH05 Democratic Progressive Tribune
BAH06 Arab Islamic Center
BAH07 National Islamic Forum
BAH08 Islamic Fundamentalist Al-Asalah
BAH09 Islamic Shoura
BAH10 Constitution Al-Meethaq
BAH11 National Democratic Solidarity
BAH12 National Free Thought
BAH13 National Constitutional Solidarity
BAH14 National Brotherhood
BAH15 Islamic Line
BAH16 Islamic Alliance Rabitah
BAH17 National Justice Movement
BAH18 National Dialogue

COMOROS

COM01 Convention for Renewal of the Comoros (CRC)
COM02 Camp of the Autonomous Islands
COM03 Anjouan Popular Movement
COM04 Comoros Party for Democracy & Progress
COM05 Democratic Front
COM06 Forces for Republican Action
COM07 Forum for National Redress
COM08 Movement for Citizens of the Republic
COM09 National Front for Justice
COM10 Movement for Socialism and Democracy
COM11 National Rally for Development
COM12 Conservative (UDC )
COM13 Green (PV )

DJIBOUTI

DJB01 People’s Rally for Progress
DJB02 Front for Restoration of Unity and Democracy
DJB03 National Democratic Party (PND )
DJB04 Social Democratic People's Party (PSD )
DJB05 Union of Reform Partisans (UPR )

EGYPT

EGY01 Egypt 2000
EGY02 Egypt Youth
EGY03 Democratic Generation
EGY04 Egypt Labor Party
EGY05 Democratic Peace Party
EGY06 Democratic Front Party
EGY07 Social Justice Party
EGY08 National Democratic Party
EGY09 Free Republican
EGY10 Constitutional Party
EGY11 Egypt Arab Social Party
EGY12 UMMA Party
EGY13 People's Democratic Party
EGY14 National Conciliation Party
EGY15 Tomorrow Party
EGY16 Arab Democratic Nasserite Party
EGY17 Democratic Unionist Party
EGY18 Liberal Socialist Party
EGY19 Progressive National Unionist
EGY20 GREENS
EGY21 New WAFD
EGY22 Conservative Party
EGY23 Solidarity Party
EGY24 Young Women Egypt
EGY25 Muslim Brotherhood

JORDAN

JOR01 National Constitutional Party (NCP )
JOR02 Jordanian Life (JLP )
JOR03 National Direct Democratic (NDDM )
JOR04 Jordanian National Party
JOR05 Democratic Popular Unity
JOR06 Arab Baath Progressive
JOR07 J. Arab Baath Socialist
JOR08 Message Party
JOR09 Communist of Jordan
JOR10 Jordanian Democratic Unity Front
JOR11 Prayer Dua'a Party
JOR12 People’s Democratic (HASHD )
JOR13 Muslim Center Party
JOR14 Islamic Action Front

KUWAIT

KWI01 Salafi Movement
KWI02 Islamic Constitutional Movement (Hadas)
KWI03 Shi’ites Movement
KWI04 Popular Coalition
KWI05 Democratic Forum
KWI06 Democratic Alliance

MAURITANIA

MAU01 Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal
MAU02 ADEL
MAU03 Rally for Democracy and Unity (RDU )
MAU04 Popular Union Progress (APP )
MAU05 Tawassoul
MAU06 Union of Progress Forces (UFP )

MOROCCO

MOR01 Socialist Union of Popular Forces
MOR02 Independence Party
MOR03 Party of Progress and Socialism
MOR04 Democratic Forces Front
MOR05 People’s Movement
MOR06 National Rally of Independents
MOR07 Constitutional Union
MOR08 National Democratic Party
MOR09 Justice and Development Party
MOR10 Democratic Socialist
MOR11 Environment and Development Party
MOR12 Moroccan Liberal Party
MOR13 Covenant Party (Al‘Ahd )
MOR14 Unified Socialist Left
MOR15 National People's Movement

PALESTINE

PAL01 Palestinian People's Party
PAL02 Palestinian Liberation (PLO) (Fatah )
PAL03 Arab Liberation Front
PAL04 Islamic Resistance (Hamas)
PAL05 Palestinian National Initiative
PAL06 Third Way
PAL07 Democratic Front for Liberation
PAL08 Popular Front for Liberation
PAL09 Freedom and Independence
PAL10 National Alliance for Justice & Democracy
PAL11 Freedom and Social Justice Party
PAL12 Palestinian Justice Party

TUNISIA

TUN01 Democratic Constitutional Rally
TUN02 Democratic Union
TUN03 Renewal Ettajdid Movement
TUN04 Socialist Democrats
TUN05 Popular Union Party
TUN06 Liberal Social Party
TUN07 Progressive Green Party
TUN08 Democratic Progressive
TUN09 Democratic Forum for Labour and Freedom

YEMEN

YEM01 General People’s Congress
YEM02 Yemeni Socialist Party
YEM03 Congregation for Reform
YEM04 Nasserite People’s Organisation