General Social Surveys

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General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined (2012)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing) (2012)

This file differs from the General Social Survey 2010 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

The 2012 GSS featured special modules on religious scriptures, the environment, dance and theater performances, health care system, government involvement, health concerns, emotional health, financial independence and income inequality.

The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. This file has a rolling panel design, with the 2008 GSS as the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2008 was selected for reinterview in 2010 and again in 2012 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2010 GSS consisted of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2008. The 2012 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 1,974, the first reinterview wave of the 2010 panel cases with 1,551 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2008 panel with 1,295 completed cases. Altogether, the 2012 GSS had 4,820 cases (1,974 in the new 2012 panel, 1,551 in the 2010 panel, and 1,295 in the 2008 panel).

General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing) (2010)

This file differs from the General Social Survey 2010 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2010 GSS. There are a total of 4,901 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

The 2010 GSS featured special modules on aging, the Internet, shared capitalism, gender roles, intergroup relations, immigration, meeting spouse, knowledge about and attitudes toward science, religious identity, religious trends, genetics, veterans, crime and victimization, social networks and group membership, and sexual behavior (continuing the series started in 1988).

The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. The 2006 GSS was the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2006 was selected for reinterview in 2008 and again in 2010 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2008 GSS consists of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2006. The 2010 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 2,044, the first reinterview wave of the 2,023 2008 panel cases with 1,581 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2006 panel with 1,276 completed cases. Altogether, the 2010 GSS had 4,901 cases (2,044 in the new 2010 panel, 1,581 in the 2008 panel, and 1,276 in the 2006 panel). The 2010 GSS is the first round to fully implement the new, rolling panel design. In 2012 and later GSSs, there will likewise be a fresh cross-section (wave one of a new panel), wave two panel cases from the immediately preceding GSS, and wave three panel cases from the next earlier GSS.

General Social Survey Panel Data (2006 Sample) (2010)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This GSS panel dataset has three waves of interviews: originally sampled and interviewed in 2006, interviewed for the second time in 2008, and interviewed for the third wave in 2010. This file contains those 2,000 respondents who were pre-selected among the 2006 samples and those variables that were asked at least twice in three waves. Survey items on religion include the following: religious preference, religion raised in, spouse's religious preference, frequency of religious service attendance, religious experiences, and religious salience.

For more information on the General Social Survey, visit its website.

General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined (2010)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2010 GSS. There are a total of 4,901 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE.

The 2010 GSS featured special modules on aging, the Internet, shared capitalism, gender roles, intergroup relations, immigration, meeting spouse, knowledge about and attitudes toward science, religious identity, religious trends, genetics, veterans, crime and victimization, social networks and group membership, and sexual behavior (continuing the series started in 1988).

The GSS has switched from a repeating, cross-section design to a combined repeating cross-section and panel-component design. The 2006 GSS was the base year for the first panel. A sub-sample of 2,000 GSS cases from 2006 was selected for reinterview in 2008 and again in 2010 as part of the GSSs in those years. The 2008 GSS consists of a new cross-section plus the reinterviews from 2006. The 2010 GSS consists of a new cross-section of 2,044, the first reinterview wave of the 2,023 2008 panel cases with 1,581 completed cases, and the second and final reinterview of the 2006 panel with 1,276 completed cases. Altogether, the 2010 GSS had 4,901 cases (2,044 in the new 2010 panel, 1,581 in the 2008 panel, and 1,276 in the 2006 panel). The 2010 GSS is the first round to fully implement the new, rolling panel design. In 2012 and later GSSs, there will likewise be a fresh cross-section (wave one of a new panel), wave two panel cases from the immediately preceding GSS, and wave three panel cases from the next earlier GSS.

Subset of the 2010 General Social Survey for the "Politics, Social Issues, Family, and Religion" Learning Module (2010)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS is designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This subset of the 2010 GSS was created for users of the "Politics, Social Issues, Family, and Religion" learning module and features measures on religious attendance, political views, social attitudes, and family life.

Subset of the 2010 General Social Survey for the "Religion and the Lifestyle of Young Adults" Learning Module (2010)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS is designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This subset of the 2010 GSS includes respondents who are 18-30 years old and was created for users of the "Religion and the Lifestyle of Young Adults" learning module. This GSS subset features measures on religious tradition, educational attainment, employment, family life, health, and religious attendance.

General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined (2008)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 2008 GSS featured special modules on attitudes toward science and technology, self-employment, terrorism preparation, global economics, sports and leisure, social inequality, sexual behaviors and religion. Items on religion covered denominational affiliation, church attendance, religious upbringing, personal beliefs, and religious experiences.

The GSS is in transition from a replicating cross-sectional design to a design that uses rotating panels. In 2008 there were two components: a new 2008 cross-section with 2,023 cases and the first re-interviews (panel) with 1,536 respondents from the 2006 GSS. The 2,023 cases in the cross-section have been previously released as a part of the 1972-2008 cumulative data. This new release includes those 1,536 re-interviewed panel cases along with the 2,023 cases. Please note that this is not a cumulative file - those cases and variables not surveyed in 2008 are excluded. Also note that, although those 1,536 cases were from the 2006 sample, this release does not include their responses in 2006. We plan to release a data file with the previous responses in the future. This release introduces new variables that were asked only of the panel cases of the 2008 GSS. The majority of variables introduced are related to the 2007 International Social Survey Program (ISSP) module on leisure time and sports.

General Social Survey, 2006 (2006)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS is designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 2006 GSS features special modules on mental health and social networks. Items on religion cover denominational affiliation, church attendance, religious upbringing, personal beliefs, and religious experiences.

General Social Survey, 2004 (2004)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 2004 data contain twelve topical modules, including modules on daily spiritual experiences and religious transformations.

General Social Survey, 2002 (2002)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 2002 GSS include questions on religious self-identification, denominational affiliation, church attendance, personal beliefs, and religious upbringing.

General Social Survey, 2000 (2000)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 2000 GSS include a module on religion (with items measuring religious self-identification, religious schooling, congregational affiliation, church attendance, and local church performance).

General Social Survey, 1998 (1998)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 1998 GSS include special modules on religion (with items measuring giving, volunteering, religious self-identification, religious schooling, congregational affiliation, and spiritualism), culture, job experiences, inter-racial friendships, national security, medical care, medical ethics, and the social security system.

General Social Survey, 1996 (1996)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and more. In addition, it contains a special module examining respondents' images of God. The survey also contains topical modules on national identity, the role of government, and mental health.

General Social Survey, 1994 (1994)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 1994 GSS featured special modules on family mobility and multiculturalism. Items on religion cover denominational affiliation, church attendance, religious upbringing, personal beliefs, and religious experiences.

General Social Survey, 1993 (1993)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and more. The survey also contains a topical module on culture.

General Social Survey, 1991 (1991)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and more. In addition, it contains a special module examining respondents' images of God. The survey also contains a topical module on work organizations.

General Social Survey, 1990 (1990)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 1990 GSS includes the Survey's usual set of items on religion, such as religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and others. In addition, it contains a special module examining respondents' images of God.

General Social Survey, 1988 (1988)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 1988 GSS include a special module on religion (with items measuring religious socialization, behaviors, and beliefs).

General Social Survey, 1980 (1980)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion in the 1980 GSS include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about life after death, and attitudes toward organized religion. In addition, the 1980 GSS contains a module on voluntary organization membership, including a measure of membership in church-affiliated groups.

General Social Survey, 1978 (1978)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion in the 1980 GSS include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about life after death, and attitudes toward organized religion. In addition, the 1978 GSS contains a module on voluntary organization membership, including a measure of membership in church-affiliated groups. The 1978 GSS also contains a special module of items examining how often respondents and their friends think about certain topics, including abortion laws.

General Social Survey, 1976 (1976)

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion in the 1976 GSS include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about life after death, and attitudes toward organized religion.