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Christian Nonprofit Organizations, 2005

These data represent almost 2,000 of the largest parachurch Christian nonprofit organizations based in the United States. The data were built using forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service in 2005. Variables include measures of revenue, expenses, activities and religious identity as measured by the organization’s statement of purpose.

Content Analysis of the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1999

The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. The research was carried out in 1999 and examined all articles and research notes from the journal's inception in 1961 through 1998. It analyzed major trends in methods, topics, theoretical frameworks, author characteristics, and editor characteristics, as well as other important traits. The study also looked at the journal's impact on the socio-scientific study of religion.

Google Ngrams Data, 1800-2000

Despite the importance of trend data for understanding key substantive and theoretical questions on American culture and religion, almost no such data exist. By searching the massive Google Books collection, however, the Google Ngram Viewer provides quantitative data on cultural and religious trends over time. The Ngram Viewer searches the entire collection of Google Books and reports on the number of times an Ngram is used annually in the books. Ngrams are most commonly words, but can be any given sequence of text. In an effort to democratize access to these trend data, the ARDA has created a dataset with more than 400 Ngram variables generated by the Ngram Viewer and more than 20 historical trend variables taken from the Historical Statistics of the United States and other sources. When available, we also included measures on education and clergy training.

The Ngram variables included in this file were generated by using both specific terms and composite data, where scales are created out of similar words (e.g., Atheist scale = atheist + Atheist + atheism + Atheism). These Ngram data were drawn from Google's American English corpus, which contains more than 3 million books. The Ngram variables were calculated as rates and can be interpreted as how often "xyz" is used, as a proportion of the total words in Google’s American English Corpus. We would caution, however, that the Ngram data included in this file are based on very simple searches. The Ngram Viewer also allows users to customize measures by using a wildcard search, inflection search, case insensitive search, part-of-speech tags and ngram compositions. For many research projects, users will want to refine the searches to better provide the measure desired. See the Finke and McClure working paper for more details.

Lesbian Christian Identity

The purpose of the study is to explore and distinguish identity management strategies used by lesbian Christians. The strategies were informed by Erving Goffman's book, Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Based on his work, six different scales were created: normalization, passing, ambivalence, superiority, minstrelization, and group affiliation. Additionally, a measure of evangelical Christian identity was created using church affiliations, self-identification as an evangelical, and beliefs consonant with evangelicalism. The creation of the evangelical identity indicator is explained in the JSSR article. The article cites other variables created through the coding of responses to open-ended questions. These variables include: the source of dissonance between religious beliefs and sexuality as well as resolution strategies for the dissonance. Some variables have been recoded to protect the respondents' identities.

Metropolitan Area Religious Ecology, 1980

This dataset was created for the research reported in two articles by William S. Bainbridge entitled "The Religious Ecology of Deviance" in American Sociological Review and "Explaining Church Member Rate" in Social Forces. This dataset contains information about religious membership, population and deviant activity in 289 metropolitan statistical areas. The data come from the U.S. Census Bureau as well as a variety of publications on behaviors deemed "deviant."

Religious Ecology of 378 American Cities, 1906-1936

This dataset was created for the research reported in Religion, Deviance and Social Control by Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge (1996). This dataset compiles information regarding the religious composition of 378 cities in the United States from 1906 to 1936 and contains observations on church membership, growth and suicide rates.

Religious Freedom in the Courts, 1981-1997

The Religious Freedom data are derived from a content analysis of the The Religious Freedom Reporter (the Reporter), which is a journal published monthly by the Church-State Resource Center of the Norman Adrian Wiggins School of Law, Campbell University. The journal dates back to January 1981 and, as stated in the introductory preface to each issue, “seeks to provide comprehensive coverage of pending and decided cases, new legislation and regulations, law review articles and other resources related to religious freedom.” The Reporter includes information from all levels of the judiciary. The dataset has information on type of case (e.g., free exercise, first amendment and establishment), when the case was decided, level of court and the religion of the group or person who brought the case forward.

The Gravestone Index

This file is a record of the religious and secular information found on headstones and tombstones in the United States, Canada, Britain, and Australia. The death dates on the grave markers cover the period from the early 19th century to the early 21st century. Also included is a record of carvings, statues, and other objects connected to the front or back of the grave markers.

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS101 Lee, Cultural Affinities, Regime Type, and Foreign Policy Opinion Formation

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

This experiment explores the role of region-specific cultural biases on individual citizens’ perceptions of security threats and seeks to disentangle this effect from the impact of knowledge of regime type. In two different scenarios, the type of government of a given country (democratic/non-democratic) and the religion of a given group (Christianity/Islam/Hinduism) are rotated for each experimental condition (six total conditions, two different scenarios). Respondent’s assignment to versions of the two scenarios is independent. In other words, there are two separate randomizations to one of six conditions, one for each scenario. The first scenario (Scenario A) deals with an international terrorist organization and the second scenario (Scenario B) deals with a foreign country developing nuclear weapons.

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS16 Glazier, Providential Religious Beliefs and U.S. Foreign Policy

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

This study uses a 2X3 experimental study design to examine how religious frames of natural disasters and political crises may influence the support for government intervention. There are a total of six experimental conditions. The first three experimental conditions deal with a hypothetical foreign policy speech regarding government intervention in a foreign natural disaster. One condition is unframed, another condition frames it as a responsibility to international agreement, and the last condition frames the issue as a religious duty as a blessed nation. Another set of three conditions deal with a hypothetical foreign policy speech regarding government intervention in a foreign political crisis. One condition is unframed, another condition frames it as a responsibility to international agreement, and the last condition frames the issue as a religious duty as a blessed nation. Through this experiment, we can examine the effects of civil religion.

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS2028 Johns, Civilian Casualties and Support for War

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

This experiment examines how the social/political conditions of a target country and the number of estimated casualties affect the support for attacking the target country. This project includes two vignette-based survey experiments. Each involves random assignment to a relatively large number of conditions (i.e., different vignettes): 12 in the case of Experiment 1 and 16 in the case of Experiment 2:

Experiment 1-- A. Target state is hypothetical. B. Variables manipulated: political nature of target state (democracy or dictatorship); dominant faith of target state (Islamic or Christian); and anticipated civilian death toll (no mention or 100 or 3,000). C. Number of total conditions: 12.

Experiment 2 -- A. Target state is Iran. B. Variables manipulated: anticipated civilian death toll (50 or 500 or 5,000 or 50,000); framing of civilian casualties (‘civilian casualties’ or ‘innocent Iranians dying, many of them women and children’); and anticipated success (delay nuclear program in Iran by a year or delay by 10 years). C. Number of total conditions: 16.

The order of the two experiments is randomized across respondents (e.g., half doing Experiment 1 first and half doing Experiment 2 first).

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS2042 Creighton, Perceptions of Islam, Migration, and Citizenship in the United States

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

This list experiment tests whether views toward immigrants depend on whether the immigrant group shares the same religion as the respondent. Since traditional survey methods may be more prone to social desirability bias, an experimental design is necessary. In this study, respondents are divided between a control group and, in this case, two treatment groups. The control group is just asked three questions unrelated to immigration. The first treatment group is asked the original three questions, but with an additional question pertaining to Muslim immigrants. The second treatment group is asked the original three questions, but with an additional question pertaining to Christian immigrants. In its most basic incarnation, the comparison of the mean of the responses to the control list with the mean of the responses to each of the treatments offers an estimate of the proportion opposed to the additional list item.

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS2047 Thornton, Understanding the Role of Religious Appeals in Political Communication

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

The following 2X2 experiment examines the concept of religious priming as well as the potential for political awareness to moderate discernible priming effects. The study follows a 2 (Religious Cues: Present, Absent) x 2 (Prior Information: Present, Absent) between subjects factorial design, with pretest and posttest questions. Religious cues are manipulated by providing respondents with a political advertisement including or excluding religious appeals. The second factor manipulates awareness, specifically how much information participants know about the political candidate’s policy preferences. As such, participants will be randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions (Information-Present, Cue-Present; Information-Present, Cue-Absent; Information-Absent, Cue-Present; Information-Absent, Cue-Absent). The information condition is simply whether one receives a one page pdf bio of the candidate; the religious cue condition is whether one receives a political ad with or without religious cues.

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS2095 Piazza, Terrorism Suspect Religious Identity and Support for Controversial Practices

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

The following study executes a survey experiment involving four treatment vignettes and one control vignette and 17 survey questions administered to 1,135 respondents. Respondents are randomly assigned to one of the five treatments which depict a short AP newswire blurb describing an arrest of two terrorist suspects in suburban Chicago. The treatments are identical to one another except they vary the names of the suspects (stereotypical Arabic/Muslim vs. Anglo-American) and the names of the terrorist movement the suspects are alleged to be members of (radical Islamists vs. right-wing American extremist). The control vignette omits any identification of the suspect names or groups. All respondents are then asked 13 questions rating their support for / approval of controversial interrogation and detention practices (10 interrogation practices, including the use of physical abuse of suspects, and three detention practices, including indefinite detention of suspects) that have been used by U.S. counterterrorism officials since the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS2104 Singer, The Effect of Question Wording on Preferences for Genetic Testing and Abortion

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

This question-wording experiment was designed to see whether using the term “fetus” rather than “baby” to ask questions would alter public preferences about prenatal testing for genetic defects and for abortion if a test revealed such defects. From 1990 through 2010, the GSS questions about prenatal testing and abortion were framed in terms of “baby” — for example: “Today, tests are being developed that make it possible to detect serious genetic defects before a baby is born." After the 2010 results were released, some researchers questioned whether the answers might have been different had the questions been framed in terms of “fetus” rather than “baby" because the word “fetus” may carry a more abstract, impersonal connotation than “baby” and might therefore lead to more frequent expressions of preferences for prenatal testing and abortion. To resolve this issue and provide guidance for future administrations of these questions in the GSS, the investigators designed a question-wording experiment fielded by TESS.

Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences, TESS73 Djupe, The Political Impact of Message Attributes from Religious Elites

TESS conducts general population experiments on behalf of investigators throughout the social sciences. General population experiments allow investigators to assign representative subject populations to experimental conditions of their choosing. Faculty and graduate students from the social sciences and related fields (such as law and public health) propose experiments. A comprehensive, on-line submission and peer review process screens proposals for the importance of their contribution to science and society.

The study focuses on the affect religious attributes may have on messages about global warming. Respondents will receive information about 1) the religious affiliation of a public official and 2) the way he made his decision to take a stance on global warming. This is a 2x2 between subject design, where the first factor is the source cue (Present/Absent) and the second factor is the decision process (Present/Absent). In total, there are four conditions and respondents are assigned with equal probabilities.


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