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Evil, Beliefs about

Beliefs about the causes/sources of evil and the dangers of evil.


Below are 70 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 7 types:

Causes Doubt?Causes of EvilCongregational EmphasisExperience Evil?GuidelinesHuman Nature?World Good or Evil?

Causes Doubt?This question type asks the respondent if evil has caused the respondent doubts about religion.


Causes of EvilThis question type asks the respondent about specific causes of evil.

  • EVILDEVL from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)LEARN MORE
    • Q27a. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements about evil in the world: Most evil in the world is caused by the Devil (EVILDEVL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • EVILMAN from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)LEARN MORE
    • Q27b. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements about evil in the world: Most evil in the world is caused by mankind (EVILMAN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • ROOTEVIL from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)LEARN MORE
    • Q27f. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements about evil in the world: Love of money is the root of all evil (ROOTEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • AGRMOEVL from Economic Values Survey, 1992LEARN MORE
    • Would you agree strongly, agree somewhat, disagree somewhat, or disagree strongly with each of these statements? -- Money is the root of all evil. (AGRMOEVL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Congregational EmphasisThis question type asks the respondent how his/her congregation addresses the issue of evil.


Experience Evil?This question type asks the respondent about experiences with evil.


GuidelinesThis question type asks the respondent if there are clear guidelines distinguishing good and evil.

  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of PentecostalsLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in BrazilLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in ChileLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in Chosen Regions of IndiaLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in GuatemalaLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in KenyaLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in NigeriaLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South AfricaLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in South KoreaLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the PhilippinesLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Spirit and Power: Survey of Pentecostals in the United StatesLEARN MORE
    • Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is: there are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Trends in Political Values and Core Attitudes, 1987-2009LEARN MORE
    • There are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. (Q16N) (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from Comparative Values Survey of Islamic CountriesLEARN MORE
    • Here are two statements which people sometimes make when discussing good and evil. 1) There are absolutely clear guidelines about what is good and evil. These always apply to everyone, whatever the circumstances. 2) There can never be absolutely clear guidelines about what is good and evil. What is good and evil depends entirely upon the circumstances at the time. Which one comes closest to your own point of view? (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVIL from December 2006 Values Update SurveyLEARN MORE
    • Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? There are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation. (GOODEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GOODEVL from Faith Matters Survey, 2006LEARN MORE
    • 12-7. Which comes closer to your views? Some people say there are absolutely clear guidelines of what is good and evil; others say there can never be absolutely clear guidelines of what is good and evil. (GOODEVL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • AGREE2N from July 2003 Values Update SurveyLEARN MORE
    • [ASK ONLY IF FORM= 2 2]Now I am going to read you another series of statements on some different topics. For each statement, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly DISagree with it or completely disagree with it. : There are clear guidelines about whats good or evil that apply to everyone regardless of their situation (AGREE2N) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Human Nature?This question type asks the respondent about evil as part of human nature.

  • MANDOEVL from Survey of Northern California Church Bodies, 1963LEARN MORE
    • Would you please think about each of the religious beliefs listed below and then indicate how certain you are that it is true. -- Man cannot help doing evil. (MANDOEVL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PERATT3 from Taiwan Social Change Survey, 1985LEARN MORE
    • To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Even a decent man may bear evil intentions. (PERATT3) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HUMANEVL from Baylor Religion Survey, Wave II (2007)LEARN MORE
    • Q27e. Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements about evil in the world: Human nature is basically evil (HUMANEVL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • SINEVIL from Middletown Area Study, 1986LEARN MORE
    • Human beings have been corrupted by sin and therefore all of us tend to be evil. Do you: (SINEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • GODGRACE from Middletown Area Study, 1988LEARN MORE
    • Let me now ask you a few more questions about other religious matters. For the first four questions, please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. -- Question 4; Human beings have been corrupted by sin, and without Gods grace we would all be evil. (GODGRACE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • MANEVIL from Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: Parishioners Sample, 1984LEARN MORE
    • How accurate are the following images of human nature? - Mainly evil (MANEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • MANIPERF from Notre Dame Study of Catholic Parish Life: Parishioners Sample, 1984LEARN MORE
    • How accurate are the following images of human nature? - Not perfectible, there are no social conditions that can overcome human evil (MANIPERF) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

World Good or Evil?This question type asks the respondent about the extent of good vs. evil in the world.

  • WORLD from Demographics in U.S. Congregations Survey, ParishionersLEARN MORE
    • Please circle a number on the 1-7 scales below. Do you think the world is basically filled with evil and sin, or that there is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness? (WORLD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD from Demographics in U.S. Congregations Survey, PastorsLEARN MORE
    • Use card E to answer the last few questions. Please choose a number between 1-7 based on the following questions. Do you think the world is basically filled with evil and sin, or that there is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness? 1=World evil, and 7=World good. (WORLD) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WRLDEVIL from Endtime Family (Children of God), 1997LEARN MORE
    • People have different images of the world and human nature. Wed like to know the kinds of images you have. Below are some sets of contrasting images. On a scale of 1-7 where would you place your image of the world and human nature between the two contrasting images? - The world is basically filled with evil and sin and There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness. (WRLDEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 1988LEARN MORE
    • Where would you place your image of the world on the following scale: From 1) The world is basically filled with evil and sin; to 7) There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 1990LEARN MORE
    • People have different images of the world and human nature. Wed like to know the kinds of images you have. Here is a card with sets of contrasting images. On a scale of 1-7 where would you place your image of the world and human nature between the two contrasting images? Look at the first set of contrasting images. If you think that The world is basically filled with evil and sin, you would place yourself at 1. If you think There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness you would place yourself at 7. If you think things are somewhere between these two you would place yourself at 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 1991LEARN MORE
    • People have different images of the world and human nature. Wed like to know the kinds of images you have. Where would you place your image of the world on the scale from 1) the world is basically filled with evil and sin; to 7) there is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 1994LEARN MORE
    • Where would you place your image of the world on the following scale: From 1) The world is basically filled with evil and sin; to 7) There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • People have different images of the world and human nature. Wed like to know the kinds of images you have. Here is a card with sets of contrasting images. On a scale of 1-7 where would you place your image of the world and human nature between the two contrasting images? Look at the first set of contrasting images. If you think that The world is basically filled with evil and sin, you would place yourself at 1. If you think There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness you would place yourself at 7. If you think things are somewhere between these two you would place yourself at 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 1998LEARN MORE
    • Where would you place your image of the world on the following scale: From 1) The world is basically filled with evil and sin; to 7) There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 2000LEARN MORE
    • Where would you place your image of the world on the following scale: From 1) The world is basically filled with evil and sin; to 7) There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORLD1 from General Social Survey, 2002LEARN MORE
    • Where would you place your image of the world on the following scale: From 1) The world is basically filled with evil and sin; to 7) There is much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness. (WORLD1) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WRLDEVIL from International Social Survey Program: Religion II, 1998LEARN MORE
    • People have different images of the world and human nature. Wed like to know the kinds of images you have. Below is a set of contrasting images. On a scale of 1-7, where would you place your image of the world and human nature between the two contrasting images? Look at the first set of contrasting images. If you think that the world is basically filled with evil and sin you would place yourself at 1. If you think that there is so much goodness in the world which hints at Gods goodness you would place yourself at 7. If you think things are somewhere in between these images, you would place yourself at 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. Where would you place your image of the world on the scale below? -- World image : much evil vs. much good. (WRLDEVIL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
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