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Heaven, Existence of

Does the respondent believe that Heaven exists?


Below are 34 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 5 types:

Afterlife OptionsConditions or Characteristics of HeavenExistence of HeavenHeaven and HellNirvana

Afterlife OptionsThis question type does not ask only about Heaven. Respondents are given the option of multiple "afterlife" destinations.


Conditions or Characteristics of HeavenThis question type includes certain conditions and/or characteristics of Heaven when asking about Heaven's existence.


Existence of HeavenThis question type asks if the respondent believes in Heaven, but does not ask about the characteristics or qualities of Heaven.


Heaven and HellThis question type asks about Heaven and Hell in the same item.


NirvanaThis question asks about Nirvana rather than "Heaven."

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