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Hell, Existence of

Does the respondent believe that Hell is a real place?

Below are 26 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept.

  • RA_12 from Portraits of American Life Study, 1st Wave, 2006LEARN MORE
    • I believe there is a Hell where people experience pain as punishment for their sin. (RA_12) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • SOUL3 from Religion and Politics Survey, 1996LEARN MORE
    • ASKED ONLY OF THOSE RESPONDENTS WHO THINK THEIR SOUL WILL LIVE ON AFTER DEATH: Do you think there is a hell, to which people who have led bad lives and die without being sorry are eternally damned? (SOUL3) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • HELL from General Social Survey, 1991LEARN MORE
    • Do you believe in. . . Hell (HELL) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
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