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Hell, Existence of

Does the respondent believe that Hell is a real place?


Below are 26 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 3 types:

Characteristics ofExistence ofLikelihood of

Characteristics ofThis question type asks about the existence of Hell, but specifiies its characteristics, or who will go to Hell.


Existence ofThis question type asks the respondent if Hell exists


Likelihood ofThis question type asks the respondent if he/she may go to Hell

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