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Racial Diversity, Extent of

Measures the racial diversity within a respondent's religious group


Below are 58 questions from surveys in the ARDA that attempt to measure this concept. The ARDA staff further categorized these questions into 5 types:

Racial BreakdownServicesSimilarity: CommunitySimilarity: RespondentValue Diversity?

Racial BreakdownThis question type asks the respondent what percentage of his/her congregation is of a particular racial/ethnic group.


ServicesThis question type asks if the respondent has attend a worship service at a congregation with a different racial/ethnic breakdown than his/her congregation.


Similarity: CommunityThis question type asks the respondent if the congregation has a similar racial/ethnic makeup as the surrounding community.

  • CONGSIM2 from Indiana Mainline Churches, 1986LEARN MORE
    • Please reflect on how similar or dissimilar the members of your congregation generally are to residents in your congregations immediate geographical area. For each factor below, indicate whether your congregation is similar, somewhat different, or very different from its immediate social context. If other important community characteristics are relevant, please list them. -- Race (CONGSIM2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • CONGSIM3 from Indiana Mainline Churches, 1986LEARN MORE
    • Please reflect on how similar or dissimilar the members of your congregation generally are to residents in your congregations immediate geographical area. For each factor below, indicate whether your congregation is similar, somewhat different, or very different from its immediate social context. If other important community characteristics are relevant, please list them. -- Ethnic background (CONGSIM3) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • CONG10S2 from Indiana Mainline Churches, 1986LEARN MORE
    • In order to understand whether and how the situation has changed, please provide estimates of similarities or differences between your congregations members and persons in the immediate geographical area approximately 10 years ago. -- Race (CONG10S2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • CONG10S3 from Indiana Mainline Churches, 1986LEARN MORE
    • In order to understand whether and how the situation has changed, please provide estimates of similarities or differences between your congregations members and persons in the immediate geographical area approximately 10 years ago. -- Ethnic background (CONG10S3) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Similarity: RespondentThis question type asks the respondent if people of different races/ethnicities attend his/her congregation.

  • Q10 from Baylor Religion Survey, 2005LEARN MORE
    • Q10 About what percent of the people at your current place of worship are of the same race/ethnicity as you? (Q10) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WSHPRACE from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1999LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED OF RESPONDENTS WHO ANSWERED RELIG599=ABOUT ONCE A MONTH, OR 2 TO 3 TIMES A MONTH, OR NEARLY VERY WEEK, OR EVERY WEEK OR SEVERAL TIMES A WEEK] Though hard to know for sure, would you say that [people of Rs race] make up more than 80% or less than 80% of the worship service you normally attend at your place of worship? (WSHPRACE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PCNTRSRC from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1999LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED OF RESPONDENTS IF WSHPRACE LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 80% ONLY] About what percent of the people who attend the same worship service that you normally attend would you say are [Rs race, from RACE94, or the same race as you if RACE94 =other]? (PCNTRSRC) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • OPCNTRSR from Southern Focus Poll, South Survey, Fall 1999LEARN MORE
    • What percentage of people attending respondents worship service are respondents race? (OPCNTRSR) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • MIXCHR from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, 1999LEARN MORE
    • Do any people who are not the same race as you attend your church or place of worship? [NOT ASKED IF RESPONDENT SAID HE/SHE NEVER ATTENDED RELIGIOUS SERVICES IN RELIG, OR REFUSED TO ANSWER RELIG] (MIXCHR) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RACECHUR from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • [If ATTEND=4-7] Now think about the people, if any, that you have frequent contact with, and enjoy being around in your [church/synagogue/mosque/temple]. With these people in mind, how many [respondents race] are among these people? (RACECHUR) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • MAKEUP from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • Though hard to know for sure, would you say that [respondents race] make up more than 80 percent of the worship service that you normally attend at your [church/synagogue/mosque/temple]? (MAKEUP) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RESPRACE from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • About what percent of the people at the worship service that you normally attend would you say are [respondents race]? (RESPRACE) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • FIRSTATT from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • When you first started attending your current [church/synagogue/mosque/temple], would you say that [respondents race] made up more than 80 percent of the worship service that you attend? (FIRSTATT) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • OTHERETH from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • [Ask only of non-whites, as trying to see if in multiethnic congregation even if not in a multiracial congregation.] In addition to your own ethnic group, are there any other ethnic groups represented in the worship service that you normally attend? (OTHERETH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • LESSTHAN from Lilly Survey of Attitudes and Social NetworksLEARN MORE
    • As an adult, have you ever in the past been a member of a congregation in which [respondents race] made up less than 80 percent congregation? (LESSTHAN) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RACCHURH from General Social Survey, 1991LEARN MORE
    • Asked about opposite race: Do (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans)/Whites attend the church that you, yourself, attend most often, or not? (RACCHURH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • PCNTRSRC from Southern Focus Poll, Non-South Survey, Fall 1999LEARN MORE
    • [ASKED IF WSHPRACE=LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 80% ONLY] About what percent of the people who attend the same worship service that you normally attend would you say are [Rs race, taken from RACE94]? (PCNTRSRC) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • MIXCRCH from Southern Focus Poll, Southern Sample, Spring 1999LEARN MORE
    • O any people who are not the same race as you attend your church or place of worship? NOTE: Not asked if respondent said he/she never attended religious services in RELIG, or refused to answer RELIG. (MIXCRCH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RACCHURH from General Social Survey, 1990LEARN MORE
    • ASKED IN TERMS OF OPPOSITE RACE: Do (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans)/Whites attend the church that you, yourself, attend most often, or not? (RACCHURH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RACCHURH from General Social Survey, 1980LEARN MORE
    • Asked in terms of opposite race: Do [(Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans)/Whites] attend the church that you, yourself, attend most often, or not? (RACCHURH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RACCHURH from General Social Survey, 1993LEARN MORE
    • Asked about opposite race: Do (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans)/Whites attend the church that you, yourself, attend most often, or not? (RACCHURH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • RACCHURH from General Social Survey, 1994LEARN MORE
    • Asked about opposite race: Do (Blacks/Negroes/African-Americans)/Whites attend the church that you, yourself, attend most often, or not? (RACCHURH) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORSHIP2 from Houston Area Survey, 1982-2010LEARN MORE
    • IF NO (WORSHIP1): About what percent of the people at the service you normally attend are [Rs ethnicity]? (03, 10) (WORSHIP2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE
  • WORSHIP2 from Houston Area Survey, 2010LEARN MORE
    • IF NO (WORSHIP1): About what percent of the people at the service you normally attend are [Rs ethnicity]? (WORSHIP2) EXPAND/COLLAPSE

Value Diversity?This question type asks the respondent how much diversity is valued within the congregation.

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