Ireland, John 
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Time Period
9/11/1838  - 9/25/1918
John Ireland was born in 1838 in County Kilkenny, Ireland. After moving to the United States with his family during the Great Famine, he began studying for the priesthood in 1853 in France and was ordained in 1861 in St. Paul, Minnesota. During the Civil War, Ireland served as a Union chaplain. After a 12-year pastorate, Ireland was consecrated coadjutor bishop of St. Paul in 1875, becoming bishop in 1884 and the diocese’s first archbishop in 1888. Ireland worked closely with James Cardinal Gibbons to convince the Vatican that the church should defend the cause of labor, an effort which was vindicated by Pope Leo XIII’s 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum. Ireland also was one of the principal intellectual forces of the Americanist movement, and he attempted unsuccessfully in 1899 to prevent Pope Leo XIII from issuing his condemnation of Americanism in the encyclical Testem Benevolentiae Nostrae. Ireland died in 1918.
Interactive Timeline(s)
Catholic Religious Events and People in American History
Browse Related Timeline Entries
Catholic Religious Events and People in American History
Religious Groups
Catholicism (Western Liturgical Family): Other ARDA Links

Publication of Encyclical Rerum Novarum
Plenary Councils of Baltimore
Publication of Encyclical Testem Benevolentiae Nostrae
Civil War

John Ireland portrait- Internet Archive- from Progress of the Catholic Church in America and the Great Catholic Columbian Congress of 1893

John Ireland- Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-52059

John Ireland portrait- Internet Archive- from Our Faith and Its Defenders by John Gilmary Shea
Book/Journal Source(s)
Appleby, R. Scott, 1992. "Church and Age Unite!": The Modernist Impulse in American Catholicism. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Marty, Martin E., 1985. Pilgrims in Their Own Land: 500 Years of Religion in America. New York: Penguin Books.Notes: Originally published in 1984 by Little, Brown and Company.)
O'Connell, Marvin R., 1989. John Ireland. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.Notes: In Gerald P. Fogarty, S.J., ed., Patterns of Episcopal Leadership: 138-149.)
Web Source(s)
John Ireland, The Church and Modern Society: Lectures and Addresses (New York: D.H. McBride and Co., 1903)
Web Page Contributor
William S. Cossen
Affliated with: Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D. in History

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