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The ARDA Data Archive is a collection of surveys, polls, and other data submitted by researchers and made available online by the ARDA.

There are 1,256 data files included in the ARDA collection. You can browse files by category, alphabetically, view the newest additions, or search for a file. Once you select a file you can preview the results, read about how the data were collected, review the survey questions asked, save selected survey questions to your own file, and/or download the data file.

International Surveys and Data +

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U.S. Church Membership Data +

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U.S. Surveys +

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              General Social Surveys -

General Social Survey 2008 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 2008 GSS featured special modules on attitudes toward science and technology, self-employment, terrorism preparation, global economics, sports and leisure, social inequality, sexual behaviors and religion. Items on religion covered denominational affiliation, church attendance, religious upbringing, personal beliefs, and religious experiences. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2010 GSS. There are a total of 4,901 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)
This file differs from the General Social Survey 2010 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2010 GSS. There are a total of 4,901 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined - Instructional Dataset
This file contains all of the cases and variables that are in the original 2012 General Social Survey, but is prepared for easier use in the classroom. Changes have been made in two areas. First, to avoid confusion when constructing tables or interpreting basic analysis, all missing data codes have been set to system missing. Second, many of the continuous variables have been categorized into fewer categories, and added as additional variables to the file. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2012 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)
This file differs from the General Social Survey 2012 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2012 GSS. There are a total of 4,820 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2014 GSS. There are a total of 3,842 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined - Instructional Dataset
This file contains all of the cases and variables that are in the original 2014 General Social Survey, but is prepared for easier use in the classroom. Changes have been made in two areas. First, to avoid confusion when constructing tables or interpreting basic analysis, all missing data codes have been set to system missing. Second, many of the continuous variables have been categorized into fewer categories, and added as additional variables to the file. [See More...]

General Social Survey 2014 Cross-Section and Panel Combined, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)
This file differs from the General Social Survey 2014 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2014 GSS. There are a total of 3,842 cases in the data set but their initial sampling years vary because the GSS now contains panel cases. Sampling years can be identified with the variable SAMPTYPE. [See More...]

General Social Survey Panel Data (2006 Sample)
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This GSS panel dataset has three waves of interviews: originally sampled and interviewed in 2006, interviewed for the second time in 2008, and interviewed for the third wave in 2010. This file contains those 2,000 respondents who were pre-selected among the 2006 samples and those variables that were asked at least twice in three waves. Survey items on religion include the following: religious preference, religion raised in, spouse's religious preference, frequency of religious service attendance, religious experiences, and religious salience. [See More...]

General Social Survey Panel Data (2016-2020)
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 2016-2020 GSS consisted of re-interviews of respondents from the 2016 and 2018 Cross-Sectional GSS rounds. All respondents from 2018 were fielded, but a random subsample of the respondents from 2016 were released for the 2020 panel. Cross-sectional responses from 2016 and 2018 are labelled Waves 1A and 1B, respectively, while responses from the 2020 re-interviews are labelled Wave 2. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1976
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion in the 1976 GSS include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about life after death, and attitudes toward organized religion. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1978
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion in the 1980 GSS include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about life after death, and attitudes toward organized religion. In addition, the 1978 GSS contains a module on voluntary organization membership, including a measure of membership in church-affiliated groups. The 1978 GSS also contains a special module of items examining how often respondents and their friends think about certain topics, including abortion laws. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1980
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion in the 1980 GSS include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about life after death, and attitudes toward organized religion. In addition, the 1980 GSS contains a module on voluntary organization membership, including a measure of membership in church-affiliated groups. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1988
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 1988 GSS include a special module on religion (with items measuring religious socialization, behaviors, and beliefs). [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1990
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 1990 GSS includes the Survey's usual set of items on religion, such as religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and others. In addition, it contains a special module examining respondents' images of God. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1991
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and more. In addition, it contains a special module examining respondents' images of God. The survey also contains a topical module on work organizations. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1993
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and more. The survey also contains a topical module on culture. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1994
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 1994 GSS featured special modules on family mobility and multiculturalism. Items on religion cover denominational affiliation, church attendance, religious upbringing, personal beliefs, and religious experiences. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1996
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items on religion include religious preference, church attendance, beliefs about the Bible, attitudes toward organized religion and its opponents, and more. In addition, it contains a special module examining respondents' images of God. The survey also contains topical modules on national identity, the role of government, and mental health. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 1998
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 1998 GSS include special modules on religion (with items measuring giving, volunteering, religious self-identification, religious schooling, congregational affiliation, and spiritualism), culture, job experiences, inter-racial friendships, national security, medical care, medical ethics, and the social security system. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2000
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 2000 GSS include a module on religion (with items measuring religious self-identification, religious schooling, congregational affiliation, church attendance, and local church performance). [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2002
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. Items in the 2002 GSS include questions on religious self-identification, denominational affiliation, church attendance, personal beliefs, and religious upbringing. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2004
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 2004 data contain twelve topical modules, including modules on daily spiritual experiences and religious transformations. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2006
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS is designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. The 2006 GSS features special modules on mental health and social networks. Items on religion cover denominational affiliation, church attendance, religious upbringing, personal beliefs, and religious experiences. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2016
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2016 GSS. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2016 - Instructional Dataset
This file contains all of the cases and variables that are in the original 2016 General Social Survey, but is prepared for easier use in the classroom. Changes have been made in two areas. First, to avoid confusion when constructing tables or interpreting basic analysis, all missing data codes have been set to system missing. Second, many of the continuous variables have been categorized into fewer categories, and added as additional variables to the file. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2016, (Inapplicable Responses Coded as Missing)
This file differs from the General Social Survey 2016 in that all inapplicable values are set to system missing. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2016 GSS. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2018
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2018 GSS. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2018 - Instructional Dataset
This file contains all of the cases and variables that are in the original 2018 General Social Survey, but is prepared for easier use in the classroom. Changes have been made in two areas. First, to avoid confusion when constructing tables or interpreting basic analysis, all missing data codes have been set to system missing. Second, many of the continuous variables have been categorized into fewer categories, and added as additional variables to the file. The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. To download syntax files for the GSS that reproduce well-known religious group recodes, including RELTRAD, please visit the ARDA's Syntax Repository. [See More...]

General Social Survey, 2021
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS are designed to be part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This data file has all cases and variables asked on the 2021 GSS. [See More...]

Subset of the 2010 General Social Survey for the "Politics, Social Issues, Family, and Religion" Learning Module
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS is designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This subset of the 2010 GSS was created for users of the "Politics, Social Issues, Family, and Religion" learning module and features measures on religious attendance, political views, social attitudes, and family life. [See More...]

Subset of the 2010 General Social Survey for the "Religion and the Lifestyle of Young Adults" Learning Module
The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) annually since 1972 except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. The GSS is designed as part of a program of social indicator research, replicating questionnaire items and wording in order to facilitate time-trend studies. This subset of the 2010 GSS includes respondents who are 18-30 years old and was created for users of the "Religion and the Lifestyle of Young Adults" learning module. This GSS subset features measures on religious tradition, educational attainment, employment, family life, health, and religious attendance. [See More...]

              National Election Studies +

              National Health and Nutrition Examination +

              National Studies of Youth and Religion (NSYR) +

              National Survey of Family Growth +

              News Polls +

              Pew Research Center +

              Portraits of American Life Study (PALS) +

              Public Religion Research Institute (PRRI) +

              State of the First Amendment Surveys +

              Other National Surveys +

     Local/Regional Surveys +

              Middletown Data +

              Southern Focus Polls +

              Other Local/Regional Surveys +

   Surveys of Denominations/Other Religious Groups +

     Surveys of Congregations/Other Religious Organizations +

              Faith Communities Today +

              National Congregations Study +

              U.S. Congregational Life Survey +

              Other Surveys +

     Surveys of Members or Leaders +

              Adventist +

              Baptist +

              Catholic +

              Jewish +

              Lutheran +

              Methodist +

              Mormon +

              Nazarene +

              Presbyterian +

              Unitarian-Universalist +

              Other Groups +

Administrative/Organizational Data +

Survey Experiments +

Instructional Data Files +

Other Data +

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