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Middletown Area Study, 1992




Bode, J. G., Burton, R., Condran, J. G., Johnson, S. D., Morris, D. C., Morris, W., ... Tamney, J. B. (2021, February 8). Middletown Area Study, 1992.


Data for the Middletown Area Studies were collected every year from 1978 to 1997. The purpose of these studies was to assess the views and lifestyles of citizens on a diverse range of subjects. The major topics included questions on life satisfaction, education, income, family, religion, and politics. The 1992 study was specifically designed to get an indication of voting patterns in relation to religious activities and other demographic variables. Topics of adoption, insurance and health care needs were also addressed.

The ARDA has added six additional variables to the original data set to enhance the users' experience on our site.

Data File

Cases: 505
Variables: 79
Weight Variable: None

Data Collection

Data were collected each year during the spring from 1978 to 1981 and each year during the fall from 1981 to 1997 (the 1981 spring study is labeled 1981A and the 1981 fall study is labeled 1981B). The 1992 interviews were conducted during the period from October 23 to October 28, 1992.

Funded By

Dean's office of the College of Sciences and Humanities at Ball State University

Collection Procedures

Data were collected by means of telephone interview surveys. Telephone numbers of people who lived within Delaware County, Indiana, were randomly generated by a computer program in such a way that the proportion of telephone numbers within each of the active exchanges in Delaware County was the same in the sample as it was in the population.

Sampling Procedures

The sample consists of people who live within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of Muncie, Indiana, or Delaware County. In 1987, 1991, and 1995 only residents of Delaware County who were 60 years old or older were sampled. In 1984, 1988, 1992, and 1996 only people who intended to vote were sampled; and in 1988 and 1992 Catholics were over-sampled.

Principal Investigators

Jerry G. Bode
Ronald Burton
John G. Condran
Stephen D. Johnson
David C. Morris
William Morris
Harry Nelson
Joseph B. Tamney

Related Publications

John Condran and Jerry Bode, "Rashomon, Working Wives, and Family Division of Labor" (1982). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44:421-426.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1986). The Political Role of Religion in the United States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (Frederick A. Praeger, publisher).

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1998). "The popularity of strict churches." Forthcoming. Review of Religious Research 39(3): 209-223.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1997). "Christianity and public book banning." Review of Religious Research 38(3):263-71.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1997). "A test of the free-rider issue." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 36(1):104-8.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1996). "The election of a traditional-family-values candidate." Review of Religious Research 38(2):97-110.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1996). "The political impact of traditional family values." Sociological Focus 29(2):125-34.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1995). "Model of factors related to tendencies to discriminate against people with AIDS." Psychological Reports 76:563-572.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1994). "Pro-life and pro-choice issue voting."
Southeastern Political Review 22(3):409-26.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1994). "What relates to vote for three religious categories?" Sociology of Religion 55(3):291-305.

Tamney, Joseph B., Stephen D. Johnson, and Ronald Burton (1994). "The abortion controversy: Conflicting beliefs and values in American society and within religious subgroups." In Abortion Politics in the United States and Canada: Studies in Public Opinion, edited by Ted Jelen and Marthe A. Chandler. New York: Praeger.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1992). "Not seeing the trees for the forest: A reply to Baggaley." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 31(4):35-36.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1992). "Anti-Arabic prejudice in 'Middletown." Psychological Reports 70:811-18.

Tamney, Joseph B., Jennifer Mertens, Stephen D. Johnson, Ronald Burton, and Rita Caccamo (1992). "Personal experience, ideology, and support for feminism." Sociological Focus 25:203-16.

Tamney, Joseph B., Stephen D. Johnson, and Ronald Burton (1992). "The abortion controversy: Conflicting beliefs and values in American society." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 31:32-46.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1991). "Economic satisfaction vs. moral conservatism in the 1988 Presidential election." Sociological Focus 24(4):303-14.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1990). "Religious diversity and ecumenical action." Review of Religious Research 32:16-26.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1990). "Factors influencing vote for a Christian right candidate." Review of Religious Research 31:291-304.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Ronald Burton (1989). "Pat Robertson: Who supported his candidacy for President?" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 28:387-99.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1989). "Discrimination against AIDS victims." Psychological Reports 64:1261-62.

Tamney, Joseph B., Shawn Powell, and Stephen D. Johnson (1989). "Innovation-diffusion theory and religious nones." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 28:216-29.

Burton, Ronald, Stephen D. Johnson, and Joseph B. Tamney (1989). "Education and fundamentalism." Review of Religious Research 30:344-59.

Tamney, Joseph B., Stephen D. Johnson, and Ronald Burton (1989). "Fundamentalism and economic restructuring." In Religion and Political Behavior in the United States, edited by Ted G. Jelen, 67-82. New York: Praeger.

Tamney, Joseph B., Ronald Burton, and Stephen D. Johnson (1988). "Christianity, social class, and the Catholic Bishops' economic policies." Sociological Analysis (Presidential Edition) 49:785-965.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1988). "Explaining support for the moral majority." Sociological Forum 3:234-55.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1989). "Fundamentalism and self-actualization." Review of Religious Research 30(3):276-86.

Johnson, Stephen D. (1987). "Factors related to intolerance of AIDS victims." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 26(1):105-10.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1987). "Church-state relations in the eighties: Public opinion in Middletown." Sociological Analysis 48(1):1-16.

Johnson, Stephen D., Joseph B. Tamney, and Sandy Halebsky (1986). "Christianity, social traditionalism, and economic conservatism." Sociological Focus 19(3):299-314.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1985). "The impact of the Christian right on the 1984 Presidential election." Review of Religious Research 27(2):124-33.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1985). "Consequential religiosity of modern society." Review of Religious Research 26(4):360-78.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1985). "Christianity and the nuclear freeze." Sociological Analysis 46(3):321-27.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1985). "Mobilizing support for the moral majority." Psychological Reports 56:987-94.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1984). "Support for the moral majority: A test of a model." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 23(2):183-96.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1984). "Religious television in Middletown." Review of Religious Research 25(4):303-13.

Tamney, Joseph B., and Stephen D. Johnson (1983). "The moral majority and Middletown." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 22(2):145-57.

Johnson, Stephen D., and David C. Morris (1983). "Who should bear the costs for the elderly: The government or family?" Gerontopics 5(3):37-40.

Johnson, Stephen D., and Joseph B. Tamney (1982). "The Christian right and the 1980 Presidential election." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 21(2):123-31.

Note 1

Socioeconomic index scores for Variable 15 (SPECOCC):
Accountants 84
Architects 95
Computer Specialists
Computer programmers 84
Computer systems analysts 94
Computer specialists, n.e.c. 92
Aeronautical and astronautical 96
Chemical 96
Civil 95
Electrical and electronic 95
Industrial 91
Mechanical 95
Metallurgical and materials 96
Mining 95
Petroleum 96
Sales 94
Engineers, n.e.c. 95
Farm management advisers 92
Foresters and conservationists 84
Home management advisers 70
Lawyers and Judges
Judges 99
Lawyers 99
Librarians, Archivists, and Curators
Librarians 72
Archivists and curators 77
Mathematical Specialists
Actuaries 85
Mathematician 98
Statistician 85
Life and Physical Scientists
Agricultural scientist 84
Atmospheric and space scientist 94
Biological scientist 89
Chemists 94
Geologists 97
Marine scientists 96
Physicists and astronomers 99
Life and physical scientists, n.e.c. 89
Operations and systems researchers and analysts 93
Personnel and labor relations workers 79
Physicians, Dentists, and Related Practitioners
Chiropractors 96
Dentists 100
Optometrists 99
Pharmacists 95
Physicians, medical and osteopathic 100
Podiatrists 99
Veterinarians 99
Nurses, dietitians, and Therapists
Dietitians 64
Registered nurses 73
Therapists 73
Health Technologists and Technicians
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 70
Dental hygienists 68
Health record technologists and technicians 67
Radiologic technologists and technicians 68
Therapy assistants 65
Health technologists and technicians, n.e.c. 57
Religious Workers
Clergymen 76
Religious workers, n.e.c. 55
Social Scientists
Economists 95
Political scientists 96
Psychologists 89
Sociologists 88
Urban and regional planners 91
Social scientists, n.e.c. 50
Social and Recreational Workers
Social workers 75
Recreation workers 46
Teachers, College and University
Agriculture teachers 97
Atmospheric, earth, marine, and space teachers 97
Biology teachers 96
Chemistry teachers 90
Physics teachers 98
Engineering teachers 97
Mathematics teachers 85
Health specialties teachers 85
Psychology teachers 97
Business and commerce teachers 85
Economics teachers 97
History teachers 96
Sociology teachers 96
Social science teachers, n.e.c. 90
Art, drama, and music teachers 79
Coaches and physical education teachers 74
Education teachers 92
English teachers 79
Foreign language teachers 70
Home economics teachers 83
Law teachers 99
Theology teachers 89
Trade, industrial, and technical teachers 85
Miscellaneous teachers, college and university 81
Teachers, college and university, subject not specified 91
Teachers, Except College and University
Adult education 90
Elementary school (public) 78
Prekindergarten and kindergarten (public) 49
Secondary school (public) 82
Teachers, except college and university, n.e.c. 56
Engineering and Science Technicians
Agriculture and biological technicians, except health 63
Chemical technicians 76
Draftsmen 73
Electrical and electronic engineering technicians 75
Industrial engineering technicians 75
Mechanical engineering technicians 83
Mathematical technicians 81
Surveyors 64
Engineering and science technicians, n.e.c. 66
Technicians, Except Health, and Engineering and science
Airplane pilots 93
Air traffic controllers 85
Embalmers 70
Flight engineers 8
Radio operators 57
Tool programmers, numerical control 87
Technicians, n.e.c. 76
Vocational and educational counselors 85
Workers, Artists, and Entertainers
Actors 76
Athletes and kindred workers 52
Authors 70
Dancers 37
Designers 67
Editors and reporters 82
Musicians and composers 51
Painters and sculptors 63
Photographers 64
Public relations and publicity workers 82
Radio and television announcers 55
Workers, artists, and entertainers, n.e.c. 70
Research workers, not specified 93
Assessors, controllers, and treasurers: local public adm. 84
Bank officers and financial 92
Buyers and shippers, farm products 91
Buyers, wholesale and retail trade 70
Credit men 80
Funeral directors 81
Health administrators 86
Construction inspectors, public administration 74
Inspectors, except construction, public administration 78
Managers and superintendents, building 64
Office managers, n.e.c. 91
officers, pilots, and pursers; ship 66
officials and administrators; public administration, n.e.c. 89
officials of lodges, societies, and unions 86
Postmasters and mail superintendents 74
Purchasing agents and buyers, n.e.c. 77
Railroad conductors 71
Restaurant, cafeteria, and bar managers 54
Sales managers and department heads, retail trade 66
Sales managers, except retail trade 70
School administrators, college 96
School administrators, elementary and secondary 96
Managers and administrators, n.e.c. 82
Advertising agents and salesmen 74
Auctioneers 61
Demonstrators 28
Hucksters and peddlers 28
Insurance agents, brokers, and underwriters 81
Newsboys 3
Real estate agents and brokers 77
Stock and bond salesmen 94
Sales representatives, manufacturing 81
Sales representatives, wholesale trade 81
Sales clerks, retail trade 29
Salesmen, retail trade 40
Salesmen of services and construction 75
Bank tellers 40
Billing clerks 43
Bookkeepers 45
Cashiers 45
Clerical assistants, social welfare 51
Clerical supervisors, n.e.c. 71
Collectors, bill and account 56
Counter clerks, except food 29
Dispatchers and starters, vehicle 40
Enumerators and interviewers 64
Estimators and investigators, n.e.c. 64
Expediters and production controllers 55
File clerks 32
Insurance adjusters, examiners, and investigators 64
Library attendants and assistants 38
Mail carriers, post office 75
Mail handlers, except post office 34
Messengers and office boys 21
Meter readers, utilities 56
office machine operators, n.e.c. 36
Bookkeeping and billing machine 45
Calculating machine 54
Computer and peripheral equipment operators 52
Duplicating machine 41
Key punch 45
Tabulating machine 45
Office machine operators, n.e.c. 49
Payroll and timekeeping clerks 52
Postal clerks 75
Proofreaders 47
Real estate appraisers 81
Receptionists 38
Secretaries 49
Secretaries, legal 59
Secretaries, medical 60
Secretaries, n.e.c. 49
Shipping and receiving clerks 41
Statistical clerks 39
Stenographers 59
Stock clerks and storekeepers 45
Teacher aides, except school monitors 36
Telegraph messengers 29
Telegraph operators 65
Telephone operators 42
Ticket, station, and express agents 73
Typists 39
Weighers 40
Miscellaneous clerical workers 32
Automobile accessories installers 37
Bakers 34
Blacksmiths 26
Boilermakers 66
Bookbinders 32
Brickmasons and stonemasons 40
Brickmasons and stonemasons, apprentices 37
Bulldozer operator 33
Cabinetmakers 40
Carpenters 42
Carpenter apprentices 36
Carpet installers 38
Cement and concrete finishers 24
Compositors and typesetters 53
Printing trades apprentices, except pressmen 40
Cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen 55
Decorators and window dressers 50
Dental laboratory technicians 57
Electricians 60
Electrician apprentices 55
Electric power linemen and cablemen 75
Electrotypers and stereotypers 53
Engravers, except photoengravers 47
Excavating, grading, and road machine operators 41
Floor layers, except tile setters 44
Foremen, n.e.c. 72
Forgemen and hammermen 40
Furniture and wood finishers 17
Furriers 46
Glaziers 48
Heat treaters, annealers, and temperers 49
Inspectors, scalers, and graders; log and lumber 24
Inspectors, n.e.c. 60
Jewelers and watchmakers 57
Job and die setters, metal 56
Locomotive engineers 71
Locomotive firemen 71
Machinists 57
Machinist apprentices 52
Mechanics and Repair-men
Air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration 57
Aircraft 65
Automobile body repairmen 33
Automobile mechanics 42
Automobile mechanic apprentices 18
Data processing machine repairmen 82
Farm implement mechanics 42
Heavy equipment mechanics, including diesel 53
Household appliance and accessory installers and mechanics 54
Loom fixers 67
Office machine 60
Radio and television 60
Railroad and car shop 53
Mechanic,, except auto, apprentices 50
Miscellaneous mechanics and repairmen 50
Not specified mechanics and repairmen 50
Millers; grain, flour, and feed 53
Millwrights 66
Molders, metal 27
Molder apprentices 20
Motion picture protectionists 45
Opticians, and lens grinders and polishers 54
Painters, construction and maintenance 29
Painter apprentices 18
Paperhangers 48
Pattern and model makers, except paper 59
Photoengravers and lithographers 66
Piano and organ tuners and repairmen 46
Plasterers 35
Plumbers and pipe fitters 58
Plumber and pipefitter apprentices 49
Power station operators 74
Pressmen and plate printers, printing 51
Pressmen apprentices 42
Rollers and finishers, metal 45
Roofers 19
Sheetmetal workers and tinsmiths 59
Sheetmetal apprentices 44
Shipfitters 52
Shoe repairmen 14
Sign painters and letterers 38
Stationary engineers 71
Stone cutters and stone carvers 22
Structural metal craftsmen 56
Tailors 21
Telephone installers and repairmen 75
Telephone linemen and splicers 73
Tile setters 41
Tool and die makers 69
Tool and die maker apprentices 59
Upholsterers 24
Specified craft apprentices, n.e.c. 36
Not specified apprentices 39
Craftsmen and kindred workers 66
Asbestos and insulation 56
Assemblers 32
Blasters and powdermen 25
Bottling and canning operatives 22
Boatmen and canalmen 41
Bus drivers 30
Conductors and motormen, urban rail transit 71
Deliverymen and routemen 38
Fork lift and tow motor operatives 45
Motormen; mine, factory, logging camp, etc. 42
Parking attendants 18
Railroad brakemen 70
Railroad switchmen 70
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 28
Truck drivers 42
Animal caretakers, except farm 27
Carpenters' helpers 16
Construction laborers, except carpenters' helpers 25
Fishermen and oysterman 30
Freight and material handlers 34
Garbage collectors 16
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm 11
Longshoremen and stevedores 44
Lumbermen, raftsmen, and woodchoppers 16
Stock handlers 8
Teamsters 38
vehicle washers and equipment cleaners 8
Warehousemen, n.e.c. 44
Miscellaneous laborers 24
Not specified laborers 10
Farmers (owners and tenants) 40
Farm managers 54
Farm foremen 43
Farm laborers, wage workers 6
Farm laborers, unpaid family workers 14
Farm service laborers, self-employed 20
Cleaning Service Workers
Chambermaids and maids, except private household 7
Cleaners and charwomen 7
Janitors and sextons 15
Food Service Workers
Bartenders 33
Busboys 2
Cooks, except private households 8
Dishwashers 2
Food counter and fountain workers 3
Waiters 15
Food service workers, n.e.c., except private households 14
Health Service Workers
Dental assistants 68
Health aides, except nursing 36
Health trainees 27
Lay midwives 26
Practical nurses 54
Personal service Workers
Airline stewardesses 78
Attendants, recreation and amusement 26
Attendants, personal service, n.e.c. 21
Baggage porters and bellhops 31
Barbers 33
Boarding and lodging house keepers 25
Bootblacks 2
Child care workers, except private household 27
Elevator operators 23
Hairdressers and cosmotologists 29
Personal service apprentices 22
Housekeepers, except private household 46
School monitors 42
Ushers, recreation and amusement 26
welfare service aides 27
Protective Service Workers
Crossing guards and bridge tenders 9
Firemen, fire protection 75
Guards and watchmen 40
Marshals and constables 63
Policemen and detectives 79
Sheriffs and baliffs 72
Child-care workers 5
Cooks 6
Housekeepers 3
Laundresses 2
Maids and servants 7

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