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PRRI-Brookings 2016 Immigration Survey




Jones, R. P., Cox, D., Dionne, E. J., Jr., Galston, W. A., Cooper, B., & Lienesch, R. (2021, October 26). PRRI-Brookings 2016 Immigration Survey.


The Public Religion Research Institute/Brookings 2016 Immigration Survey investigates public views on immigrants and the immigration system, including concerns about the economic and cultural impact of immigrants coming to the U.S. today. It gauges support for various immigration policies, such as preventing Syrian refugees from entering the country and building a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border, and the feasibility of deporting immigrants illegally living in the U.S. Additionally, the survey has an extensive array of questions about the 2016 presidential primaries, including Democratic and Republican primary candidate preference and favorability ratings of the political parties, former presidents and current presidential candidates, including Hillary Clinton, Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump, Ted Cruz and John Kasich.

The ARDA has added four additional variables to the original data set to enhance the users' experience on our site.

Data File

Cases: 2607
Variables: 147
Weight Variable: WEIGHT

The weighting is accomplished in two stages. First, panel base weights are calculated for each household based on the probability of selection from the NORC National Frame, the sampling frame that is used to sample housing units for AmeriSpeak. Household level weights are then assigned to each eligible adult in every recruited household. In the second stage, sample demographics are balanced to match target population parameters for gender, age, education, race and Hispanic ethnicity, and division (U.S. Census definitions), housing type and telephone usage. The telephone usage parameter came from an analysis of the National Health Interview Survey. All other weighting parameters are derived from an analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Survey.

The sample weighting is accomplished using an iterative proportional fitting (IFP) process that simultaneously balances the distributions of all variables. Weights were trimmed to prevent individual interviews from having too much influence on the final results. The use of these weights in statistical analysis ensures that the demographic characteristics of the sample closely approximate the demographic characteristics of the target populations.

Data Collection

April 4 - May 2, 2016

Original Survey (Instrument)


Funded By

The survey was made possible by a generous grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Collection Procedures

NORC's AmeriSpeak Panel provides a representative panel of civilian, non-institutional adults (age 18 and over) living in the United States. The sample frame was developed using a two-stage probability sample design to create a representative sample of households in the United States. The first stage uses National Frame Areas (NFAs), geographic areas that have a population of at least 10,000 people. The National Sample Frame contains almost 3 million households and includes 80,000 rural households. Additionally, NORC oversampled housing units in segments (Census tracts or block groups) that include hard -to-reach populations, including young adults, Hispanics and African Americans. Panel recruitment proceeded in two stages. First, a mail solicitation is sent to a randomly selected household along with follow-up telephone calls and email solicitations if necessary. In the second stage, households that have not responded to the initial inquiry or follow-ups receive an enhanced incentive offer and a personal visit from NORC field interviewers. Members typically participate in panel surveys two or three times a month. For more information about AmeriSpeak, please visit:

Sampling Procedures

The survey was designed and conducted by Public Religion Research Institute in partnership with the Brookings Institution. Interviews were conducted among a random sample of 2,607 adults (age 18 and up) living in the United States including all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Interviews were conducted both online using a self-administered design and by telephone using live interviewers. All interviews were conducted among participants in AmeriSpeak, a probability-based panel designed to be representative of the national U.S. adult population run by NORC at the University of Chicago. Panel participants without Internet access, which included 461 respondents, were interviewed via telephone by professional interviewers under the direction of NORC. Interviewing was conducted in both Spanish and English between April 4 and May 2, 2016.

The margin of error for the survey is +/- 2.7 percentage points at the 95 percent level of confidence. The design effect for the survey is 1.9. In addition to sampling error, surveys may also be subject to error or bias due to question wording, context and order effects.

Principal Investigators

Robert P. Jones, Daniel Cox, E.J. Dionne, Jr., William A. Galston, Betsy Cooper and Rachel Lienesch

Related Publications

How Immigration and Concerns about Cultural Changes Are Shaping the 2016 Election

How Immigration and Concerns about Cultural Change are Shaping the 2016 Election | PRRI/Brookings Survey

Few Americans Say Immigrants Increase Crime in Local Communities

Most Americans Oppose a Temporary Muslim Ban

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