- Religious Freedom
- Religious Regulation
- Religious Support
- Public Opinion
Preferred Religion (2015)1: Muslim
Majority Religion (2015)2: Sunni Muslim (88%)
Features Of Constitution
|Is there a constitution?3||yes|
|Does the constitution state an official religion?3||yes [Article 2A]|
|Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?3||yes [Articles 2A, 41(1)(a)]|
|Does the constitution protect religious equality/non-discrimination?3||yes [Articles 2A, 28]|
|Translation3||Source is an English translation.|
|Current as of3||October 20, 2018|
Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)3
… the high ideals of … secularism …
Article 2A. The state religion.
The state religion of the Republic is Islam, but the State shall ensure equal status and equal right in the practice of the Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and other religions.
Article 8. Fundamental principles.
(1) The principles of … secularism … [among others] shall constitute the fundamental principles of state policy.
Article 12. Secularism and freedom of religion.
The principle of secularism shall be realised by the elimination of—
(a) communalism in all its forms;
(b) the granting by the State of political status in favour of any religion;
(c) the abuse of religion for political purposes;
(d) any discrimination against, or persecution of, persons practicing a particular religion.
Article 28. Discrimination on grounds of religion, etc.
(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on ground only of religion, … caste …
(3) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, … caste … be subjected to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to access to any place of public entertainment or resort, or admission to any educational institution.
[A technical exception follows for affirmative action but religious sects not expressly mentioned.]
Article 29. Equality of opportunity in public employment.
(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion … caste … be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office in the service of the Republic.
(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from—
(a) [Affirmative action but religious sects not expressly mentioned]
(b) giving effect to any law which makes provision for reserving appointments relating to any religious or denominational institution to persons of that religion or denomination;
Article 38. Freedom of association.
Every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of morality or public order:
Provided that no person shall have the right to form, or be a member of the said association or union, if—
(a) it is formed for the purposes of destroying the religious … harmony among the citizens;
(b) it is formed for the purposes of creating discrimination among the citizens, on the ground of religion, … caste …
Article 41. Freedom of religion.
(1) Subject to law, public order and morality—
(a) every citizen has the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion;
(b) every religious community or denomination has the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions.
(2) No person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in or to attend any religious ceremony or worship, if that instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.
Article 121. Single electoral roll for each constituency.
… no special electoral roll shall be prepared so as to classify electors according to religion, … caste …
Schedule 5. Historic Speech of the Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman of the 7th March. 1971.
… In our Bengal, everyone, be the Hindu or Muslim … is our brother.
[one use of the Islamic expression "God willing"]
1. The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.
2. The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports annual estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivisions within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.
3. Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at email@example.com if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.