Turkey
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  Preferred Religion (2015)1: Sunni

  Majority Religion (2015)2: Sunni Muslim (83.7%)

Features Of Constitution

Is there a constitution?3 yes
Does the constitution state an official religion?3 no [Article 2]
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?3 yes [Article 24]
Does the constitution protect religious equality/non-discrimination?3 yes [Article 10]

Constitution

Constitution Year3 1982
Last Amended3 2017
Source3 Constitute Project
Translation3 Source is an English translation.
Current as of3 September 18, 2018

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)3

Preamble

...

... sacred religious feelings shall absolutely not be involved in state affairs and politics as required by the principle of secularism;

...

Article 2.

The Republic of Turkey is ... secular ...

Article 10.

Everyone is equal before the law without distinction as to ... religion and sect ...

Article 13.

... [R]estrictions [on fundamental rights and freedoms] shall not be contrary to ... the requirements of ... the secular republic ...

Article 14.

None of the rights and freedoms embodied in the Constitution shall be exercised in the form of activities aiming ... to endanger the existence of the ... secular order of the Republic ...

Article 15.

[Suspension of rights during national emergency, but:] ... no one shall be compelled to reveal his/her religion, conscience, thought or opinion, nor be accused on account of them; ...

Article 24.

Everyone has the freedom of conscience, religious belief and conviction.

Acts of worship, religious rites and ceremonies shall be conducted freely, as long as they do not violate the provisions of Article 14.

No one shall be compelled to worship, or to participate in religious rites and ceremonies, or to reveal religious beliefs and convictions, or be blamed or accused because of his religious beliefs and convictions.

Religious and moral education and instruction shall be conducted under state supervision and control. Instruction in religious culture and morals shall be one of the compulsory lessons in the curricula of primary and secondary schools. Other religious education and instruction shall be subject to the individual’s own desire, and in the case of minors, to the request of their legal representatives.

No one shall be allowed to exploit or abuse religion or religious feelings, or things held sacred by religion, in any manner whatsoever, for the purpose of personal or political interest or influence, or for even partially basing the fundamental, social, economic, political, and legal order of the State on religious tenets.

Article 68.

...

The statutes and programs, as well as the activities of political parties shall not be contrary to ... the principles of the ... secular republic; ...

...

Article 81.

Members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, on assuming office, shall take the following oath:

"... to remain loyal ... to the ... secular republic, ..."

Article 103.

On assuming office, the President of the Republic shall take the following oath before the Grand National Assembly of Turkey:

"... to abide by ... the principles of the secular republic, ..."

Article 136.

The Presidency of Religious Affairs, which is within the general administration, shall exercise its duties prescribed in its particular law, in accordance with the principles of secularism, removed from all political views and ideas, and aiming at national solidarity and integrity.

Article 174.

No provision of the Constitution shall be construed or interpreted as rendering unconstitutional the Reform Laws indicated below, which aim ... to safeguard the secular character of the Republic ...

...

Provisional Article 2.

...

The functions of the Presidential Council shall be as follows:

(a) To examine laws adopted by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and submitted to the President of the Republic concerning: ... the principle of secularism, ...

(b) On the request of the President of the Republic and within the period specified by him:

To consider and give an opinion on matters relating to ... the conduct of religious affairs;

...


Sources

1.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

2.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports annual estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivisions within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

3.  Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at support@thearda.com if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

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