Burma (Myanmar)
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  Preferred Religion (2015)1: Theravada Buddhist

  Majority Religion (2015)2: Theravada Buddhist (70.8%)

Features Of Constitution

Is there a constitution?3 yes
Does the constitution state an official religion?3 recognition only [Sections 361, 362]
Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?3 yes [Section 34]
Does the constitution protect religious equality/non-discrimination?3 yes [Section 348]

Constitution

Constitution Year3 2008
Last Amended3 (n/a)
Source3 Constitute Project
Translation3 Source is an English translation, edited by ARDA staff.
Current as of3 October 20, 2018

Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)3

Section 34.

Every citizen is equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess and practise religion subject to public order, morality or health and to the other provisions of this Constitution.

Section 121.

The following persons shall not be entitled to be elected as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives:

(g) person himself or is of a member of an organization who obtains and utilizes directly or indirectly the support of money, land, housing, building, vehicle, property, so forth, from … [a] religious organization

(h) person himself or is of a member of an organization who abets the act of inciting, giving speech, conversing or issuing declaration to vote or not to vote based on religion for political purpose;

(i) member of a religious order;

Section 348.

The Union shall not discriminate any citizen of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, based on … religion

Section 352.

The Union shall, upon specified qualifications being fulfilled, in appointing or assigning duties to civil service personnel, not discriminate for or against any citizen of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, based on … religion …

Section 354.

Every citizen shall be at liberty in the exercise of the following rights, if not contrary to the laws, enacted for Union security, prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquility or public order and morality:

(d) to develop … [the] religion they profess … without prejudice to the relations … other faiths.

Section 360.

(a) The freedom of religious right given in Section 34 shall not include any economic, financial, political or other secular activities that may be associated with religious practice.

(b) The freedom of religious practice so guaranteed shall not debar the Union from enacting law for the purpose of public welfare and reform.

Section 361.

The Union recognizes special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union.

Section 362.

The Union also recognizes Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Animism as the religions existing in the Union at the day of the coming into operation of this Constitution.

Section 363.

The Union may assist and protect the religions it recognizes to its utmost.

Section 364.

The abuse of religion for political purposes is forbidden. Moreover, any act which is intended or is likely to promote feelings of hatred, enmity or discord between … religious communities or sects is contrary to this Constitution. A law may be promulgated to punish such activity.

Section 368.

The Union shall honour and assist citizens who are outstanding in education irrespective of … religion … according to their qualifications.

Section 392.

The following persons shall have no right to vote:

(a) members of religious orders;

Section 407.

If a political party infringe one of the following stipulations, it shall have no right of continued existence:

(c) directly or indirectly receiving and expending financial, material and other assistance from ... a religious association

(d) abusing religion for political purpose.


Sources

1.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

2.  The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports annual estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivisions within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

3.  Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at support@thearda.com if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

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