- Religious Freedom
- Religious Regulation
- Religious Support
- Public Opinion
Preferred Religion (2015)1: Sunni
Majority Religion (2015)2: Sunni Muslim (88.3%)
Features Of Constitution
|Is there a constitution?3||yes|
|Does the constitution state an official religion?3||yes [Article 2]|
|Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?3||partial [Article 64]|
|Does the constitution protect religious equality/non-discrimination?3||yes [Article 53]|
|Translation3||Source is an English translation.|
|Current as of3||September 9, 2018|
Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion)3
In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
… before earth knew the three revealed religions.
Egypt is the cradle of religions and the banner of glory of the revealed religions.
On its land, Moses grew up, the light of God appeared, and the message descended on Mount Sinai.
On its land, Egyptians welcomed Virgin Mary and her baby and offered up thousands of martyrs in defense of the Church of Jesus.
When the Seal of the Messengers Mohamed (Peace and Blessings Be Upon Him) was sent to all mankind to perfect the sublime morals, our hearts and minds were opened to the light of Islam. We were the best soldiers on Earth to fight for the cause of God, and we disseminated the message of truth and religious sciences across the world.
… Egypt affirmed its Arab allegiance, opened up to its African continent and Muslim world …
… blessings granted to [the people’s army] by … Al-Azhar and the patriotic church …
… Earth, which God created for us …
We are drafting a Constitution that affirms that the principles of Islamic Sharia are the principle source of legislation …
Article 1. Nature of the Republic.
Egypt … is part of the Muslim world …
Article 2. Islam, principles of Islamic sharia.
Islam is the religion of the state … The principles of Islamic Sharia are the principle source of legislation.
Article 3. Christian and Jewish religious affairs.
The principles of the laws of Egyptian Christians and Jews are the main source of laws regulating their personal status, religious affairs, and selection of spiritual leaders.
Article 7. Al-Azhar.
Al-Azhar is an independent scientific Islamic institution, with exclusive competence over its own affairs. It is the main authority for religious sciences, and Islamic affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam and disseminating the religious sciences … in Egypt and the world.
The state shall provide enough financial allocations to achieve its purposes.
Al-Azhar’s Grand Sheikh is independent and cannot be dismissed. The method of appointing the Grand Sheikh from among the members of the Council of Senior Scholars is to be determined by law.
Article 10. Family as the basis of society.
Family is the basis of society and is based on religion [and other things] …
Article 24. Arabic language, religious education and national history.
… religious education [and other subjects] … are core subjects of pre- university public and private education …
Article 53. Equality in public rights and duties.
Citizens are equal before the law, possess equal rights and public duties, and may not be discriminated against on the basis of religion, belief …
Article 64. Freedom of belief.
Freedom of belief is absolute.
The freedom of practicing religious rituals and establishing places of worship for the followers of revealed religions is a right organized by law.
Article 74. Freedom to form political parties.
… No political activity may be exercised or political parties formed on the basis of religion …
Article 80. Rights of the child.
… Children have the right to … have access to … religious education …
Article 87. Citizen participation in public life.
The use of … places of worship … for political purposes and electioneering is forbidden.
Article 180. Election of local councils.
… The law regulates other conditions for candidacy and procedures of election, provided that … these percentages include a proper representation of Christians …
Article 235. Building and renovating churches.
In its first legislative term after this Constitution comes into effect, the House of Representatives shall issue a law to organize building and renovating churches, guaranteeing Christians the freedom to practice their religious rituals.
Article 244. Representation for youth, Christians, disabled persons, etc.
The state grants … Christians … appropriate representation in the first House of Representatives to be elected after this Constitution is adopted, in the manner specified by law.
1. The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.
2. The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports annual estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivisions within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.
3. Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.