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Event Introduction Type
9/11 On September 11, 2001 ("9/11"), al-Qaeda terrorists crashed two planes into the Twin Towers and one into the Pentagon. More than 3,000 people died. Historical Content
Adopting Act of Westminster Confession By adopting the Westminster Confession of Faith (1729) as its doctrinal standard, American Presbyterianism moved a step closer to becoming a fully regularized denomination.
American Bible Society Founded The American Bible Society (est. 1816) is a faith-based voluntary society that distributes millions of Bibles throughout the country.
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions In 1810, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions formed in order to send Congregationalist and Presbyterian missionaries all over the world.
American Revolution When the first shots were fired in 1775, the Colonies didn’t even have a military. Eight years later, the United States had defeated England. Historical Content
Auburn Affirmation In 1924, the Auburn Affirmation denounced the Five Point Deliverance as a necessary means for ordination in the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
Bible Presbyterian Church The Bible Presbyterian Church, led by Carl McIntire in 1937, was the product of division between Presbyterian traditionalists and fundamentalists in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
Cane Ridge Camp Meeting Barton Stone organized the Cane Ridge camp meeting (1801), the largest and most famous religious revival of the Second Great Awakening.
Charles Finney's Rochester Revival Charles Finney's Rochester Revival (1830-1831) played a foundational role for the more widespread revivalism and conversions of the 1830s and 1840s.
Christianity and Liberalism Published John Gresham Machen’s Christianity and Liberalism (1923) challenged the cultural shift toward modernist interpretations of the Bible within the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
Civil War The Civil War (1861-1865) was fought between the U.S. government and 11 southern states. The Union prevailed, slaves were freed, and nearly 700,000 people died. Historical Content
Cold War The antagonistic relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, known as the Cold War (1947-1991), lasted for nearly half a century. Historical Content
Colonial Period Colonial America took root in Virginia in 1607 and gained momentum when the Pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts. By 1760, there were two million settlers. Historical Content
Cumberland Presbyterian Church In 1810, the Cumberland Presbytery formed as a response to ordination and theological differences with the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A.
Cumberland Presbyterian Church of America Founded In 1874, former slaves in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church founded an independent denomination, later named the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of America.
Eugene Peterson's The Message Published In 1993, Eugene Peterson began publishing sections of The Message (Bible), which translated the Christian Bible into modern everyday language.
Evangelical Presbyterian Church In 1981, the Evangelical Presbyterian Church became the third major conservative denomination to split off from the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A).
First African Presbyterian Church Organized In May 1807, John Gloucester organized the first African American Presbyterian Church.
First General Assembly of the PCUSA In 1789, American Presbyterians created the General Assembly and adopted a new name, the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (i.e., PCUSA).
First Presbytery Formed in Philadelphia The formation of a presbytery in Philadelphia in 1706 brought official Presbyterianism to the colonies.
First Wave of Feminism The 72-year struggle to grant women the right to vote evolved as the central theme of the first wave of American feminism (1848-1920). Historical Content
Formation of the Associate Reformed Presbytery, or "Seceders" The Associate Reformed Presbytery, formed in Philadelphia in 1782, represented Scottish immigrants from the "seceder" tradition in the Church of Scotland.
Founding Period With independence won, the United States of America began creating a new government during the Founding Period (1783-1791), including the selection of the first president. Historical Content
Freedmen's Aid Society In the 1860s, the Freedmen's Aid Society formed with the goal of increasing educational opportunities for blacks in the American South.
George Bourne Dismissed for His Opposition to Slavery Presbyterian minister George Bourne lost his pastor position in 1815 for advocating the immediate emancipation of the slaves.
Gilbert Tennent Preaches "The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry" Gilbert Tennent's 1740 sermon, "The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry," helped spark the Old Side-New Side division among American Presbyterians.
Great Depression The Great Depression (1929-1939) brought the biggest economic upheaval in U.S. history. Millions of people were unemployed, banks/businesses failed, and there was sweeping poverty. Historical Content
Hanover Presbytery Organized in Virginia The 1755 founding of Hanover Presbytery in Virginia highlighted the rapid expansion of evangelicalism in the South during the First Great Awakening.
Harry Emerson Fosdick Preaches "Shall the Fundamentalists Win?" In 1922, Harry Emerson Fosdick's sermon accused fundamentalists of being "essentially illiberal and intolerant." His subsequent dismissal made Fosdick a martyr for liberal mainline Christianity.
Jim Crow Laws Abolition freed the slaves, but blacks were kept segregated from whites in the South through local and state regulations known as Jim Crow laws (1890-1965). Historical Content
King Philip's War For 14 months (1675-1676), Indians raided settlements and colonialists launched counterattacks. It ended after King Philip, the chief of the Wampanoag Indian tribe, was assassinated. Historical Content
Life of David Brainerd Published Jonathan Edwards published The Life of David Brainerd (1749) to promote evangelical theology during the First Great Awakening.
Margaret Towner Ordained in PCUSA Margaret Towner's ordination in 1956 was the culmination of a long struggle for gender equality in the Presbyterian Church USA.
Merger of UPCNA and PCUSA The merger of the UPCNA and the PCUSA in 1958 created the largest Presbyterian denomination in America, but was followed by controversy and dissension.
Merger of UPCUSA and PCUS In 1983, the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Presbyterian Church in the United States merged to form the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
Murders of Marcus and Narcissa Whitman In 1847, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, early missionaries to the Oregon territory, were killed by the Cayuse Indians in a widely publicized massacre.
New School-Old School Controversy Splits the General Assembly The New School-Old School controversy, driven by theological differences during the Second Great Awakening, split the mainstream of American Presbyterianism in 1837.
Orthodox Presbyterian Church Founded In 1936, discontented conservative Presbyterians left the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America to form the Orthodox Presbyterian Church.
PCUSA Allows Same-Sex Marriage On June 19, 2014, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) passed an amendment to allow pastor to perform same-sex marriages.
PCUSA Approves Gay/Lesbian Ordination On July 8, 2010, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) approved the ordination of "openly"/partnered gay and lesbian members. Many conservative members left the denomination thereafter.
Presbyterian Church in America In 1973, conservative Presbyterians dissatisfied with the liberal tendencies of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. left to form the Presbyterian Church in America.
Presbyterian Church in the U.S. The Civil War divided northern and southern Presbyterians, leading those in the South to secede and form the Presbyterian Church in the U.S. in 1861.
Presbyterian Church v. Hull Memorial Presbyterian Church In 1969, this Supreme Court case prohibited the government from interfering in doctrinal disputes between churches.
Princeton University Founded New Light Presbyterians founded Princeton University in 1746 as one of the first national colleges in America.
Prohibition The 18th amendment made the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol illegal in the United States for 13 years (1920-1933). Historical Content
Reconstruction and Industrialization During the Reconstruction and Industrialization period (1865-1890), the South struggled to recover after the Civil War. Meanwhile, United States was emerging as an industrial giant. Historical Content
Reunification of New School and Old School Presbyterians After 30 years of division between New School and Old School Presbyterians, the factions reunited in 1869.
Rise of Equal Rights Movements The social justice movements of the 1960s were infectious, giving rise to women, racial minorities, and LGBT groups seeking equal rights in the United States. Historical Content
Sarah Dickson Becomes First Female Presbyterian Elder On June 2, 1930, Sarah Dickson became the first female elder in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).
Scottish Covenanters Form First Presbytery in Pennsylvania Expatriates from dissident Scottish Presbyterians formed a presbytery in central Pennsylvania in 1774.
Synod of 1737 and the Old Side-New Side Controversy The Synod of 1737, which restricted itinerancy and tightened ordination standards, launched the Old Side-New Side Controversy, which divided American Presbyterianism for two decades.
The American Sunday School Union In 1817, the American Sunday School Union formed as a faith-based voluntary society to spread education and knowledge of the Bible throughout the country.
The First Great Awakening The First Great Awakening (1730s-1770s) was a series of religious revivals that propelled the expansion of evangelical denominations in the colonies.
The Plan of Union of 1758 The Plan of Union in 1758 ended the Old Side-New Side controversy among American Presbyterians.
The Plan of Union of 1801 In 1801, the Plan of Union united the Presbyterians and the Congregationalists in efforts to evangelize the Midwest.
The Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening(s) (1790s-1840s) fueled the rise of an evangelical Protestant majority in antebellum America, giving rise to new denominations and social reform organizations.
Trial of Albert Barnes The trial of Presbyterian minister Albert Barnes regarding his unorthodox theology in 1835 increased tensions between Old School and New School Presbyterians.
Trial of Charles Augustus Briggs The 1892 heresy trial of theologian Charles Augustus Briggs anticipated the fundamentalist-modernist controversy in the Presbyterian Church twenty years later.
UPCUSA Confession of 1967 The 1967 Confession added calls for racial and social reconciliation, but conservatives in the United Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) accused it of hedging on essential doctrines.
Vietnam War America’s two-decade involvement in the Vietnam War (1955-1975) was costly and divisive. It claimed more than 58,000 U.S. lives and cost 140 billion dollars. Historical Content
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (1812-1815) is often called the second American Revolutionary War, because it again pitted America against Britain. Historical Content
Westward and Southern Expansion The United States of America began pushing beyond the boundaries of its original 13 states, until its holdings spanned from sea to sea (1790-1848). Historical Content
William Tennent's "Log College" In 1727, William Tennent's "Log College" became the first seminary in North America.
World War I World War I (1914-1919) began in Europe, but grew into an unprecedented global conflict with 65 million troops. It was called the Great War. Historical Content
World War II With the rise of Adolf Hitler, Germany began annexing neighboring countries, leading to the second World War (1939-1945) and the deadliest conflict in world history. Historical Content


Name Introduction
Allen, Horace Newton Horace Allen (1858-1932) was the first resident Protestant missionary in Korea. His medical and diplomatic contributions helped soothe anti-Christian policies in the region.
Blake, Eugene Carson Eugene Carson Blake (1906-1985) was a prominent Presbyterian minister best known for his commitment to ecumenism and the civil rights movement.
Buck, Pearl S. Pearl Buck (1892-1973) was an award-winning novelist, whose liberal views on theology and Presbyterian missions drew criticism from conservative Presbyterians.
Dabney, Robert Lewis Robert Lewis Dabney (1794-1884) is considered one of the most influential Southern theologians of the 19th century.
Davies, Samuel Samuel Davies (1723-1761) helped spread Presbyterianism to Virginia and served Princeton University early in its establishment.
Fearing, Maria Maria Fearing emerged from slavery to become a self-financed missionary teacher, founding the Pantops Home for Girls in Luebo, Congo.
Finney, Charles Charles Finney (1792-1875) was a prominent evangelical and revivalist during the Second Great Awakening.
Fosdick, Harry Emerson Harry Emerson Fosdick (1878-1969), prominent New York City minister and theological liberal. Famous for criticizing fundamentalists in his sermon entitled "Shall the Fundamentalists Win?"
Gloucester, John John Gloucester (1776-1822) founded the first African-American Presbyterian Church and was one of the earliest black Presbyterian ministers.
Hodge, Archibald Alexander Archibald Alexander Hodge (1823-1886) was a conservative Presbyterian pastor and Princeton theologian. He was popular for his warm, witty, and clear writing style.
Hodge, Charles Charles Hodge (1797-1878) was the leading 19th century Old School Presbyterian theologian in the United States.
Keller, Timothy Timothy Keller (1950-present) is an evangelical pastor, theologian, and best-selling author. His intellectual preaching style attracts educated young professionals to his New York City megachurch.
Kennedy, Dennis James Dennis James Kennedy (1930-2007) was an evangelical pastor of Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church and a significant figure in the New Christian Right.
Machen, John Gresham John Gresham Machen (1881-1937) was a Presbyterian clergyman and New Testament scholar at Princeton Theological Seminary. He is famous for denouncing more liberal interpretations of the Bible.
Makemie, Francis Francis Makemie (1668-1708) is known as the father of American Presbyterianism.
McIntire, Carl Carl McIntire (1906-2002) was a militant fundamentalist, who helped found the Bible Presbyterian Church, International Council of Christian Churches, and radio show "Twentieth-Century Reformation Hour."
Mears, Henrietta Henrietta Mears (1890-1963) reignited the popularity of Sunday schools through her high quality teaching methods and publications.
Mouw, Richard Richard Mouw (1940-present) is a Presbyterian evangelical theologian/philosopher, and former president of Fuller Theological Seminary, who is well known for his interfaith dialogue.
Occom, Samson Samson Occom (1723-1792), an evangelical Presbyterian minister from the Mohegan tribe, founded the Indian-Christian community of Brothertown, New York.
Parkhurst, Charles Henry Charles Parkhurst (1842-1933) was a Presbyterian minister and social reformer who exposed the moral and political corruption of New York City.
Rogers, Fred McFeely Fred Rogers (1928-2003), a Presbyterian minister, hosted a popular kids' show called "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood" on public television from 1968 until 2001.
Rushdoony, Rousas John Rousas John Rushdoony (1916-2001), Presbyterian theologian and homeschooling advocate, laid the foundations for Christian Reconstructionism.
Schaeffer, Francis Francis Schaeffer (1912-1984) was a famous evangelical apologist who denounced the spread of relativism in modern society.
Tennent, Gilbert Gilbert Tennent (1703-1764) was an Irish-born "New Side" Presbyterian minister and revivalist. His criticism of more conservative Presbyterians led to a schism in 1741.
Tennent, William William Tennent (1673-1746) was a Presbyterian minister famously known for establishing the first Presbyterian seminary in America.
Thornwell, James James Henley Thornwell (1812-1862) was the antebellum South’s most eminent Presbyterian theologian.
Van Til, Cornelius Cornelius Van Til (1895-1987) was a Dutch-American theologian, famous for his unique brand of Christian apologetics known as presuppositionalism.
Warfield, Benjamin B. B. Warfield (1851-1921) ranks in the forefront of great Presbyterian theologians of Princeton Seminary.
Witherspoon, John John Witherspoon (1723-1794) was a Presbyterian minister, president of the College of New Jersey, and the only clergy signatory of the Declaration of Independence.
Woosley, Louisa Louisa Woosley (1862-1952) was the first female ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church.

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