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Included Nations/Regions: Singapore [x], South-Eastern Asia [x], The World [x]


Religion and State (RAS) Indexes1

Religion Indexes (Singapore)

State Funding of Religion
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 128/253
Societal Discrimination of Minority Religions
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 148/253
State Regulation of Majority or All Religions
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 36/253
State Discrimination of Minority Religions
Summary categories: None (0/3), Low (1/3), Medium (2/3), High (3/3)

Ranking: 55/253
For details on how these indexes were constructed, click here

Singapore: Major World Religions (1900 - 2050) (World Religion Database, 2020)2

The following groups with less than 1% of the population were hidden from this graph: Baha'is, Ethnic religionists, Jews, Shintoists, Sikhs, Zoroastrians.


Singapore: Largest Religious Groups (1900 - 2050) (World Religion Database, 2020)2

The following groups with less than 1% of the population were hidden from this graph: Atheists, doubly-affiliated, Orthodox, Saktists, Shias.


Religious Adherents (World Religion Database 2020)2

Religion Singapore
[x]
South-Eastern Asia
[x]
The World
[x]
Baha'is 0.07% 0.16% 0.11%
Buddhists 14.90% 25.69% 6.83%
--Mahayanists 13.41% 8.51% 4.89%
--Theravadins 1.49% 17.18% 1.72%
--Lamaists --- 0.00% 0.23%
Chinese folk-religionists 37.50% 1.91% 5.98%
Christians 20.67% 22.86% 32.16%
--unaffiliated Christians 8.49% 0.47% 1.46%
--Orthodox 0.05% 0.00% 3.75%
--Catholics 4.62% 15.30% 15.90%
--Protestants 4.27% 4.98% 7.51%
--Independents 3.25% 4.13% 5.00%
Daoists --- 0.00% 0.11%
Confucianists --- 0.16% 0.11%
Ethnic religionists 0.02% 4.69% 3.65%
Hindus 5.23% 1.18% 13.58%
--Vaishnavites 1.48% 0.18% 5.15%
--Shaivites 3.51% 0.93% 4.86%
--Saktists 0.24% 0.06% 3.57%
Jains --- 0.00% 0.08%
Jews 0.01% 0.00% 0.19%
Muslims 15.05% 37.18% 24.20%
--Sunnis 15.05% 37.17% 21.56%
--Shias 0.00% 0.01% 2.44%
--Islamic schismatics --- 0.00% 0.21%
New religionists 1.50% 2.29% 0.85%
Shintoists 0.02% 0.00% 0.04%
Sikhs 0.24% 0.03% 0.34%
Spiritists --- --- 0.19%
Zoroastrians 0.01% 0.00% 0.00%
Non-Religious 4.77% 3.85% 11.57%
--Agnostics 4.63% 2.82% 9.65%
--Atheists 0.14% 1.04% 1.92%

Religious demographics (Singapore)3

The country has an area of 270 square miles and a population of 4.8 million, of whom 3.6 million are citizens or permanent residents. According to the 2000 census, 85 percent of citizens and permanent residents profess a religion. Of this group, 51 percent practice Buddhism, Taoism, ancestor veneration, or other religious practice traditionally associated with the ethnic Chinese population. Approximately 15 percent of the population is Muslim, 15 percent Christian, and 4 percent Hindu. The remainder is composed of adherents of other religious groups, including small Sikh, Jewish, Zoroastrian, and Jain communities. Among Christians, the majority of whom are ethnic Chinese, 33 percent are Roman Catholic and 67 percent are Protestant. The remaining 15 percent of the population does not profess a religious faith.

Approximately 77 percent of the population is ethnic Chinese, 14 percent ethnic Malay, and 8 percent ethnic Indian. Nearly all ethnic Malays are Muslim, and a majority of ethnic Indians are Hindu. The ethnic Chinese population includes mainly Buddhists, Taoists, and Christians. In 2000 there were an estimated 2,000 members of the Jehovah's Witnesses; however, no official membership records are available for either Jehovah's Witnesses or the Unification Church, as neither group is recognized by the Government.

Summary Information

Singapore
[x]
South-Eastern Asia
[x]
The World
[x]
Region South-Eastern Asia The World --
Total Population4 5,637,429 635,514,843 7,335,774,068
Area in square miles 269 1,735,335 196,939,900
Life Expectancy from birth, in years5 82.6 72.1 71.9
Gross National Income per capita, in current international dollars5 85,050.0 20,515.0 16,101.0
Description of Polity Score6 (anocratic) -- --
Judicial Independence Composite Score, as average of scores for higher and lower courts7 -0.6 0.5 0.8
Official Religion(s)8 None -- --

Singapore - Google Map


Religion and the State

Religion and State Collection (2014)

Singapore
[x]
Is proselytizing Legal?1 Yes
Is religious registration someties denied?1 Registration is required but sometimes denied
What are the consequences of registration?1 Groups are officially required to register, and the government enforces this and discriminates against unregistered groups.
Official Support: The formal relationship between religion and state.1 Accommodation
The extent to which religious education is mandatory in public schools.1 None
The extent to which funding is exclusive to one or a few religions.1 Government funding of religion goes roughly equally (taking into account population distributions) to all religions for which there are a substantial number of adherents in the country.
The extent to which there are religious requirements and oaths for holding office.1 There are no religious requirements or oaths necessary in order to hold office.

Constitutional Features [ View Excerpts]

Constitution

Singapore
[x]
Constitution Year10 1963
Last Amended10 2016
Source10 Constitute Project
Translation10 Original was written in English.
Current as of10 November 6, 2018

Public Opinion (Singapore)

(Calculated by the ARDA from the World Values Survey)11
2002 2012
Religious Affiliation/Identification
Percent belonging to a religious denomination. 80.3 82.3
Percent identifying as a religious person. --- 60.4
Religious Behaviors
Percent attending religious services at least once a month. 44.1 44.8
Percent praying to God more than once per week. 45.2 55.2
Percent that meditate or pray. 69.6 ---
Percent attending religious services at least once a month when 12 years old. --- 24.8
Religious Beliefs
Percent believing in God. 87.1 82.8
Percent believing in heaven. 80.8 ---
Percent believing in hell. 79.2 78
Percent believing in life after death. 74 ---
Percent believing that there are clear guidelines on good and evil. 37.8 ---
Percent believing that politicians who do not believe in God are unfit for public office. --- 26.2
Percent believing that religious leaders should not influence people's vote. --- 41.7
Percent believing that things would be better if there are more people with strong religious beliefs. --- 41
Percent that think that religious faith is an important quality in children --- 29.4
Percent that agree: We depend too much on science and not enough on faith 91.5 ---
Percent believing church gives answers to people's spiritual needs. --- 22.2
Percent that do not trust people of other religions --- 27.7
Percent believing church gives answers on family life problems. --- 36.8
Percent believing churches give answers to moral problems. --- 22.6
Percent that often think about meaning and purpose of life --- 45.5
Percent believing churches give answers to social problems. --- 75.1
Percent believing that religious leaders should influence the government. --- 35.4
Religious Experiences
Percent finding comfort and strength from religion. 76.7 ---
Attitudes
Percent considering religion important. 71 76.9
Percent considering that God is not at all important in their life. 5.4 4.8
Percent confident in religious organizations. --- 72
Politics
Percent thinking that churches have an influence on national politics. --- 12.6

Socio-Economic Measures

Economic Measures

Singapore
[x]
South-Eastern Asia
[x]
The World
[x]
Gross Domestic Product, in billions of current U.S. Dollars5 297.0 2,555.3 75,845.1
Imports, in million current-year U.S. dollars14 434,374.6 1,319,718.9 20,150,355.0
Exports, in million current-year U.S. dollars14 511,222.3 1,460,524.9 20,790,015.7
Economic Freedom Index, scaled from 0 min to 100 max15 88.6 62.8 62.9
Human Development Index16 0.9 0.7 0.7
2013 Gender Inequality Index (GII)17 0.1 0.4 0.4
Gross National Income per capita, in current international dollars5 85,050.0 20,515.0 16,101.0

Military Measures

Singapore
[x]
South-Eastern Asia
[x]
The World
[x]
Composite Index of National Capability, in fraction of 118 0.0030085 0.004733518 0.005162584
2012 Military expenditure (% of GDP)5 3.3 1.3 --

Other Measures on Religion, State, and Society


Constitution Clauses Related to Religion


Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion) (Singapore)10

Article 12. Equal protection.

...

(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion ... in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.

(3) This Article does not invalidate or prohibit---

(a) any provision regulating personal law; or

(b) any provision or practice restricting office or employment connected with the affairs of any religion, or of an institution managed by a group professing any religion, to persons professing that religion.

Article 15. Freedom of religion.

(1) Every person has the right to profess and practise his religion and to propagate it.

(2) No person shall be compelled to pay any tax the proceeds of which are specially allocated in whole or in part for the purposes of a religion other than his own.

(3) Every religious group has the right---

(a) to manage its own religious affairs;

(b) to establish and maintain institutions for religious or charitable purposes; and

(c) to acquire and own property and hold and administer it in accordance with law.

(4) This Article does not authorise any act contrary to any general law relating to public order, public health or morality.

Article 16. Rights in respect of education.

(1) Without prejudice to the generality of Article 12, there shall be no discrimination against any citizen of Singapore on the grounds only of religion ... ---

[in admissions, tuition, or appropriations]

(2) Every religious group has the right to establish and maintain institutions for the education of children and provide therein instruction in its own religion, and there shall be no discrimination on the ground only of religion in any law relating to such institutions or in the administration of any such law.

(3) No person shall be required to receive instruction in or to take part in any ceremony or act of worship of a religion other than his own.

(4) For the purposes of clause (3), the religion of a person under the age of 18 years shall be decided by his parent or guardian.

Article 19B. Reserved election for community that has not held office of President for 5 or more consecutive terms.

...

(5) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article is invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or is considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78.

...

Article 21A. General time limit for President to exercise discretionary powers.

...

(2) Subject to any reduction or extension under clause (3), the specified period for the purposes of clause (1) is---

(a) 30 days for the following matters:

...

(iv) whether to confirm under Article 22I a restraining order made under the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act (Cap. 167A);

...

...

...

Article 22. Appointment of public officers, etc.

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Constitution, the President, acting in his discretion, may refuse to make an appointment to any of the following offices or to revoke any such appointment if he does not concur with the advice or recommendation of the authority on whose advice or recommendation he is, by virtue of that other provision of this Constitution or any other written law, to act:

...

(d) the chairman and members of the Presidential Council for Religious Harmony constituted under the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act (Cap. 167A);

...

Article 22I. Restraining order under Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act.

The President, acting in his discretion, may cancel, vary, confirm or refuse to confirm a restraining order made under the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act (Cap. 167A) where the advice of the Cabinet is contrary to the recommendation of the Presidential Council for Religious Harmony.

Article 39A. Group representation constituencies.

...

(3) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or be considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78.

...

Article 68. Interpretation of this Part [on the Presidential Council for Minority Rights]

In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires---

• "adverse report" means a report of the Council stating that, in the opinion of the Council, some specified provision of a Bill or of a subsidiary legislation would be a differentiating measure;

...

• "differentiating measure" means any measure which is, or is likely in its practical application to be, disadvantageous to persons of any ... religious community and not equally disadvantageous to persons of other such communities, either directly by prejudicing persons of that community or indirectly by giving advantage to persons of another community;

...

Article 76. General function of Council.

(1) It shall be the general function of the Council to consider and report on such matters affecting persons of any ... religious community in Singapore as may be referred to the Council by Parliament or the Government.

(2) A reference to the Council by Parliament may be made by the Speaker, and a reference to the Council by the Government may be made by a Minister.

Article 77. Functions of Council in respect of bills and subsidiary legislation.

It shall be the particular function of the Council to draw attention to any Bill or to any subsidiary legislation if that Bill or subsidiary legislation is, in the opinion of the Council, a differentiating measure.

Article 78. Copies of bills and amendments thereto to be sent to Council.

...

(2) The Council shall consider the Bill and shall, within 30 days of the date on which the Bill was sent to the Council, make a report to the Speaker stating whether or not in the opinion of the Council any and, if so, which provision of the Bill would, if enacted, be a differentiating measure.

...

(5) The Speaker shall cause every report received by him from the Council in pursuance of clause (2) to be presented to Parliament without undue delay. Where the Speaker receives no such report on the Bill within the time provided in clause (2), or any extension thereof granted under clause (4), it shall be conclusively presumed that the Council is of the opinion that no provision of the Bill would, if enacted, be a differentiating measure.

(6) No Bill to which this Article applies shall be presented to the President for assent unless it is accompanied by a certificate under the hand of the Speaker stating that---

(a) in the opinion of the Council no provision of the Bill would, if enacted, be a differentiating measure;

(b) no report having been received from the Council within the time prescribed or any extension thereof, the Council is presumed to be of the opinion that no provision of the Bill would, if enacted, be a differentiating measure; or

(c) notwithstanding the opinion of the Council that some specified provision of the Bill would, if enacted, be a differentiating measure, a motion for the presentation of the Bill to the President for assent has been passed by not less than two-thirds of the total number of Members of Parliament (excluding nominated Members).

...

Article 79. Functions of Council in regard to bills enacted on a certificate of urgency.

...

(2) The Council shall thereupon consider the Act and shall, within 30 days of the date on which the Act was sent to the Council, make a report to the Speaker stating whether or not in the opinion of the Council any and, if so, which provision of the Act is a differentiating measure.

Article 80. Functions of Council in regard to subsidiary legislation.

...

(2) The Council shall thereupon consider such subsidiary legislation and shall, within 30 days of the date on which the subsidiary legislation was sent to the Council, make a report to the Speaker and to the appropriate Minister, stating whether or not in the opinion of the Council any and, if so, which provision of the subsidiary legislation is a differentiating measure.

...

(5) If no report on any subsidiary legislation is received from the Council within the time provided in clause (2), it shall be conclusively presumed that the Council is of the opinion that no provision in such subsidiary legislation is a differentiating measure.

Article 81. Functions of Council in regard to certain written law.

(1) The Council may examine any written law in force on 9th January 1970 and may make a report in regard to any provision in such written law which, in the opinion of the Council, is a differentiating measure.

...

Article 147. Annual estimates and financial statements.

...

(3) The estimates of revenue to be shown in the estimates shall not include any sums received by way of zakat, fitrah and baitulmal or similar Muslim revenue.

...

Article 150. Proclamation of Emergency.

...

(5) ...

(b) Paragraph (a) [validating emergency laws that otherwise would be unconstitutional] shall not validate any provision inconsistent with---

...

(iii) the provisions of this Constitution relating to religion ...

...

Article 152. Minorities and special position of Malays.

(1) It shall be the responsibility of the Government constantly to care for the interests of the ... religious minorities in Singapore.

(2) The Government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognize the special position of the Malays, who are the indigenous people of Singapore, and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the Government to protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their ... religious ... interests ...

Article 153. Muslim religion.

The Legislature shall by law make provision for regulating Muslim religious affairs and for constituting a Council to advise the President in matters relating to the Muslim religion.

Variable Details

  • For more details on State Funding of Religion (FUN_4CAT) see this document.
  • For more details on Societal Discrimination of Minority Religions (SOC_4CAT) see this document.
  • For more details on State Regulation of Majority or All Religions (NXX_4CAT) see this document.
  • For more details on State Discrimination of Minority Religions (MXX_4CAT) see this document.
  • Sources

    1 The Religion and State (RAS) Project is a university-based project located at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel and is directed by Jonathan Fox. Round 3 of the RAS includes all countries with populations of 250,000 or more as well as a sampling of smaller states and offers annual measures from 1990 to 2014. The methods used for conducting the RAS3 collection and the complete codebook can be reviewed online. Or, the codebook and data file can be downloaded free of charge here. For details on how the RAS indexes reported on the ARDA’s National Profiles were coded, constructed, and placed into categories, click here.

    2 Todd M. Johnson and Brian J. Grim, eds. World Religion Database (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2022).

    3 The U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report is submitted to Congress annually by the Department of State in compliance with Section 102(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998. This report supplements the most recent Human Rights Reports by providing additional detailed information with respect to matters involving international religious freedom. It includes individual country chapters on the status of religious freedom worldwide. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. These State Department reports are open source.

    4 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports the estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. The RCS was created to fulfill the unmet need for a dataset on the religious dimensions of countries of the world, with the state-year as the unit of observation. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivision within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database.

    5 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.

    6 The Center for Systemic Peace (CSP) is engaged in innovative research on the problem of political violence within the structural context of the dynamic global system. The Center supports scientific research and quantitative analysis in many issue areas related to the fundamental problems of violence in both human relations and societal-systemic development processes. The Center continually monitors political behavior in each of the world's major states and reports on emerging issues and persisting conditions related to the problems of political violence and "state failure." A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission. *Note: Polity Scores range from -10 to 10 and include the following categories: -10 to -9: strongly autocratic, -8 to -7 autocratic, -6 to -4 weakly autocratic, -3 to +3 anocratic, +4 to +6 weakly democratic, +7 to +8 democratic, +9 to +10 strongly democratic.

    7 Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. V-Dem provides a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between seven high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, egalitarian, majoritarian, and consensual, and collects data to measure these principles. A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission.

    8 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.

    9 Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    10 Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if you are aware of any incorrect information provided on this page.

    11 The World Values Survey is a worldwide investigation of socio-cultural and political change. It is conducted by a network of social scientists at leading universities around the world. Interviews have been carried out with nationally representative samples of the publics of more than 80 societies. A total of four waves have been carried out since 1981. The ARDA has averaged the weighted responses across the waves for each country surveyed. The average responses for all countries have been placed in a single file and can be previewed and downloaded here. See the World Values Survey website for further information and to download the original survey data: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/.

    12 Freedom House is an independent non-governmental organization that offers measures of the extent to which governments are accountable to their own people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, belief and respect for the rights of minorities and women are guaranteed. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    13 The CIA's World Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the now defunct National Intelligence Survey (NIS) studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The year 2010 marks the 67th year of the World Factbook and its predecessor programs. The maps and flags are also from the World Factbook, which is an open source.

    14 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.

    15 The Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom is a systematic, empirical measurement of economic freedom in countries throughout the world. A set of objective economic criteria are used to study and grade various countries for the annual publication of the Index of Economic Freedom. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    16 The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    17 The 2013 Gender Inequality Index is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labor market. It varies between zero (when women and men fare equally) and one (when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions). The health dimension is measured by two indicators: maternal mortality ratio and the adolescent fertility rate. The empowerment dimension is also measured by two indicators: the share of parliamentary seats held by each sex and by secondary and higher education attainment levels. The labor dimension is measured by women’s participation in the work force. Source: The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.

    18 Military data is drawn from the National Material Capabilities (v4.0) dataset, which is a component of and hosted by the Correlates of War Project. The Correlates of War Project seeks to facilitate the collection, dissemination, and use of accurate and reliable quantitative data in international relations. Correlates of War data may be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.

    19 The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom reports. The 2003, 2005, and 2008 reports were coded by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The GRI, GFI and SRI values reported on the National Profiles are averages from the 2003, 2005, and 2008 International Religious Freedom reports, while the Religious Persecution measure is an average from the 2005 and 2008 reports. All other measures derived from the International Religious Freedom reports were coded from the reports 2008. A data file with all of the 2008 coding, as well as data files with other cross national collections are available for preview and download from the data archive on this site. Used with permission.

    20 The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset contains standards-based quantitative information on government respect for 15 internationally recognized human rights for 202 countries, annually from 1981-2011. It is designed for use by scholars and students who seek to test theories about the causes and consequences of human rights violations, as well as policy makers and analysts who seek to estimate the human rights effects of a wide variety of institutional changes and public policies including democratization, economic aid, military aid, structural adjustment, and humanitarian intervention. The full CIRI Human Rights Dataset can be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.

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