National / Regional Profiles
Tuvalu: Major World Religions (1900 - 2050) (World Religion Database, 2020)1
The following groups with less than 1% of the population were hidden from this graph: Buddhists, Muslims.
Tuvalu: Largest Religious Groups (1900 - 2050) (World Religion Database, 2020)1
The following groups with less than 1% of the population were hidden from this graph: Atheists, Catholics, doubly-affiliated, Mahayanists, Sunnis.
Religious Adherents (World Religion Database 2020)1
Religious demographics (Tuvalu)2
The country is an archipelago of 9 island groups with a total area of 10 square miles and a population of 9,700. The Church of Tuvalu, which has historic ties to the Congregational Church and other churches in Samoa, has the largest number of followers. Government estimates of religious affiliation as a percentage of the population include the Church of Tuvalu, 91 percent; Seventh-day Adventist, 3 percent; Baha'i, 3 percent; Jehovah's Witnesses, 2 percent; and Roman Catholic, 1 percent. There are also smaller numbers of Muslims, Baptists, and members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The Tuvalu Brethren Church, a new charismatic Protestant group, claims to have as many as 300 adherents, but this figure could not be independently confirmed.
All nine island groups have traditional chiefs, all of whom are members of the Church of Tuvalu. Most followers of other religious groups or denominations are found in Funafuti, the capital, with the exception of a relatively large proportion of followers of the Baha'i Faith on Nanumea Island.
|Area in square miles||10||3,346||196,939,900|
|Life Expectancy from birth, in years4||--||74.8||71.9|
|Gross National Income per capita, in current international dollars4||5,920.0||5,960.0||16,101.0|
|Description of Polity Score5||--||--||--|
|Judicial Independence Composite Score, as average of scores for higher and lower courts6||--||--||0.8|
Religion and the State
Constitutional Features [ View Excerpts]
Features of Constitution
|Is there a constitution?9||Yes|
|Does the constitution state an official religion?10||yes [ Preamble ]|
|Does the constitution provide for freedom of religion?10||yes [ Section 23(1-2) ]|
|Does the constitution protect religious equality/non-discrimination?10||yes [ Sections 11(1), 27(1-2) ]|
|Adult Literacy Rate, in percentage of adult population12||--||99.1||86.2|
|Net Primary School Enrollment Rate, in percentage of population of official school age4||84.4||89.5||89.6|
|Net Secondary School Enrollment Rate, in percentage of population of official school age4||72.5||75.1||65.1|
|Gross Domestic Product, in billions of current U.S. Dollars4||0.0||--||75,845.1|
|Imports, in million current-year U.S. dollars13||39.5||--||20,150,355.0|
|Exports, in million current-year U.S. dollars13||20.6||--||20,790,015.7|
|Economic Freedom Index, scaled from 0 min to 100 max14||--||72.3||62.9|
|Human Development Index15||--||0.7||0.7|
|2013 Gender Inequality Index (GII)16||--||--||0.4|
|Gross National Income per capita, in current international dollars4||5,920.0||5,960.0||16,101.0|
Demographic and Health Measures
|Life Expectancy from birth, in years4||--||74.8||71.9|
|2012 Net Migration Rate (migrants per 1,000 population)4||--||--||--|
|Urban Percentage of Total Population13||60.6||--||54.3|
|Urban Population Growth, by percentage13||2.4||--||2.0|
|Fertility Rate, in total births per woman13||--||--||2.5|
|Infant Mortality Rate, in deaths per 1000 live births13||21.4||--||30.5|
|HIV Prevalence, in percentage of population ages 15-49 with HIV13||--||--||0.8|
Other Measures on Religion, State, and Society
Constitution Clauses Related to Religion
Constitution Excerpts (clauses that reference religion) (Tuvalu)10
AND WHEREAS the people of Tuvalu, acknowledging God as the Almighty and Everlasting Lord and giver of all good things, humbly place themselves under His good providence and seek His blessing upon themselves and their lives;
AND WHEREAS the people of Tuvalu desire to constitute themselves as an independent State based on Christian principles, the Rule of Law, and Tuvaluan custom and tradition;
PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION
(2) The right of the people of Tuvalu, both present and future, to a full, free and happy life, and to moral, spiritual, personal and material welfare, is affirmed as one given to them by God.
(3) ... with gratitude to God ...
• the need for mutual respect and co-operation between the different kinds of authorities concerned, including ... the religious authorities.
THESE PRINCIPLES, under the guidance of God, are solemnly adopted ...
Section 10. Freedom under law.
(3) This section is not intended to deny the existence, nature or effect of ... religious obligations ..., or to prevent such obligations being given effect by law if, and so far as, it may be thought appropriate to do so.
Section 11. The fundamental human rights and freedoms.
(1) Every person in Tuvalu is entitled, whatever his ... religious beliefs or lack of religious beliefs ..., to the following fundamental rights and freedoms:---
[Here follow enumerated rights, including:]
(e) freedom of belief (see section 23); ...
Section 23. Freedom of belief.
(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, and in particular to---
(a) the succeeding provisions of this section; and
(b) section 29 (protection of Tuvaluan values, etc.); and
(c) section 31 (disciplined forces of Tuvalu); and
(d) section 32 (foreign disciplined forces); and
(e) section 33 (hostile disciplined forces); and
(f) section 36 (restrictions on certain rights and freedoms during public emergencies), except with his consent no-one shall be hindered in the exercise of his freedom of belief.
(2) For the purposes of this section, freedom of belief includes---
(a) freedom of thought, religion and belief; and
(b) freedom to change religion or belief; and
(c) freedom, either alone or with others, to show and to spread, both in public and in private, a religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
(3) A religious community is entitled, at its own expense---
(a) to establish and maintain places of education; and
(b) subject to the maintenance of any minimum prescribed educational standards, to manage any place of education that it wholly maintains; and
(c) subject to subsection (4), to provide religious instruction for members of the community in the course of any education that it provides.
(4) Except with his consent, no-one attending a place of education shall be required---
(a) to receive religious instruction; or
(b) to take part in or attend a religious ceremony or observance, if the instruction, ceremony or observance relates to a religion or belief other than his own.
(5) No-one shall be compelled---
(a) to take an oath or make an affirmation that is contrary to his religion or belief, or
(b) to take an oath or make an affirmation in any manner that is contrary to his religion or belief.
(6) Nothing in or done under a law shall be considered to be inconsistent with this section to the extent that the law makes provision which is reasonably required---
(a) in the interests of---
(i) defence; or
(ii) public safety; or
(iii) public order; or
(iv) public morality; or(v) public health; or
(b) for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practise any religion or belief without the unsolicited intervention of members of any other religion or belief.
(7) Nothing in or done under a law shall be considered to be inconsistent with this section to the extent that the law makes reasonable provision---
(a) requiring a person who proves that he has a conscientious objection to performing some reasonable and normal traditional, communal or civic obligation, or to performing it at a particular time or in a particular way, to perform instead, some reasonably equivalent service of benefit to the community; or
(b) for the exclusion of such a person and his household from any benefit arising out of the performance of those obligations by others until the equivalent service has been performed.
(8) The protection given by this section to freedom of religion or belief applies equally to freedom not to have or hold a particular religion or belief, or any religion or belief.
(9) A reference in this section to a religion includes a reference to a religious denomination and to the beliefs of a religion or religious denomination.
Section 27. Freedom from discrimination.
(1) In this section, discrimination refers to the treatment of different people in different ways wholly or mainly because of their different---
(e) religious beliefs or lack of religious beliefs, in such a way that one such person is for some such reason given more favourable treatment or less favourable treatment than another such person.
(2) Subject to the provisions of this Part, and in particular to---
(a) the succeeding provisions of this section; and
[Here follow technical exceptions for armed forces, public emergencies, and others]
no-one shall be treated in a discriminatory manner.
(3) Subsection (2) does not apply to a law so far as it makes provision---
... [for taxation, spending, non-citizens]
(d) in respect of---
(i) adoption; or
(ii) marriage; or
(iii) divorce; or
(iv) burial; or
(v) any other such matter,
in accordance with the personal law, beliefs or customs of any person or group; ...
... [other technical exceptions, including affirmative action]
(6) Nothing in or done under a law shall be considered to be inconsistent with subsection (2) to the extent that the law provides that any person may be subjected to any restriction on the rights and freedoms guaranteed by---
(b) section 23 (freedom of belief); ...
Section 29. Protection of Tuvaluan values, etc.
(1) The Preamble acknowledges that Tuvalu is an Independent State based on Christian principles, the Rule of Law, Tuvaluan values, culture and tradition, and respect for human dignity.
(2) This includes recognition of---
(a) the right to worship, or not to worship, in whatever way the conscience of the individual tells him; and
(b) the right to hold, to receive and to communicate opinions, ideas and information.
(4) It may therefore be necessary in certain circumstances to regulate or place some restrictions on the exercise of those rights, if their exercise---
(a) may be divisive, unsettling or offensive to the people; or
(b) may directly threaten Tuvaluan values or culture.
(5) Subject to section 15 (definition of "reasonably justifiable in a democratic society") nothing contained in a law or done under a law shall be considered to be inconsistent with section 23 (freedom of belief); ...; to the extent the law makes provision regulating or placing restrictions on any exercise of the right---
(a) to spread beliefs; or
(b) to communicate opinions, ideas and information; if the exercise of that right may otherwise conflict with subsection (4).
Section 36. Restrictions on certain rights and freedoms during public emergencies.
Nothing in or done under a law shall be considered to be inconsistent with---
(d) section 23 (freedom of belief); ...
to the extent that the law---
(i) makes any provision, in relation to a period of public emergency; or
(j) authorizes the doing, during any such period, of any thing that is reasonably justifiable for the purpose of dealing with any situation that arises or exists during that period.
Section 48. The Sovereign of Tuvalu.
(1) ... by the grace of God Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her Other Realms and Possessions ...
Sources1 Todd M. Johnson and Brian J. Grim, eds. World Religion Database (Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2022).
2 The U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report is submitted to Congress annually by the Department of State in compliance with Section 102(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) of 1998. This report supplements the most recent Human Rights Reports by providing additional detailed information with respect to matters involving international religious freedom. It includes individual country chapters on the status of religious freedom worldwide. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. These State Department reports are open source.
3 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Demographics reports the estimates of religious demographics, both country by country and region by region. The RCS was created to fulfill the unmet need for a dataset on the religious dimensions of countries of the world, with the state-year as the unit of observation. It estimates populations and percentages of adherents of 100 religious denominations including second level subdivision within Christianity and Islam. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database.
4 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.
5 The Center for Systemic Peace (CSP) is engaged in innovative research on the problem of political violence within the structural context of the dynamic global system. The Center supports scientific research and quantitative analysis in many issue areas related to the fundamental problems of violence in both human relations and societal-systemic development processes. The Center continually monitors political behavior in each of the world's major states and reports on emerging issues and persisting conditions related to the problems of political violence and "state failure." A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission. *Note: Polity Scores range from -10 to 10 and include the following categories: -10 to -9: strongly autocratic, -8 to -7 autocratic, -6 to -4 weakly autocratic, -3 to +3 anocratic, +4 to +6 weakly democratic, +7 to +8 democratic, +9 to +10 strongly democratic.
6 Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. V-Dem provides a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between seven high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, egalitarian, majoritarian, and consensual, and collects data to measure these principles. A dataset with these and other international measures can be downloaded from here. Used with permission.
7 The Religious Characteristics of States Dataset Project: Government Religious Preference (GRP) measures government-level favoritism toward, and disfavor against, 30 religious denominations. A series of ordered categorical variables index the state's institutional favoritism in 28 different ways. The variables are combined to form five composite indices for five broad components of state-religion: official status, religious education, financial support, regulatory burdens, and freedom of practice. The five components' composites in turn are further combined into a single composite score, the GRP score. The RCS Data Project would like to acknowledge, recognize, and express our deepest gratitude for the significant contributions of Todd M. Johnson, the principal investigator of the World Christian Database, the co-principal investigator of the World Religion Database, and co-author of the World Christian Encyclopedia series.
8 The Religion and State (RAS) Project is a university-based project located at Bar Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel and is directed by Jonathan Fox. Round 3 of the RAS includes all countries with populations of 250,000 or more as well as a sampling of smaller states and offers annual measures from 1990 to 2014. The methods used for conducting the RAS3 collection and the complete codebook can be reviewed online. Or, the codebook and data file can be downloaded free of charge here. For details on how the RAS indexes reported on the ARDA’s National Profiles were coded, constructed, and placed into categories, click here.
9 Data under the "Features of Constitution" heading are drawn from coding of the U.S. State Department's 2008 International Religious Freedom Reports conducted by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the International Religious Freedom reports. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.
10 Text from country constitutions was copied from primary documents obtained online using a variety of sources, including the Constitute Project, World Constitutions Illustrated, and government sources. When the text was in a language other than English, it was translated to English by ARDA staff or with web-based translation utilities such as Google Translate. Emphases were added to the text by ARDA staff to differentiate religious content from non-religious content. Text is current to the date listed in the "Current as of" field shown above. Please contact us at
11 Freedom House is an independent non-governmental organization that offers measures of the extent to which governments are accountable to their own people; the rule of law prevails; and freedoms of expression, association, belief and respect for the rights of minorities and women are guaranteed. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.
12 The CIA's World Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the now defunct National Intelligence Survey (NIS) studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The year 2010 marks the 67th year of the World Factbook and its predecessor programs. The maps and flags are also from the World Factbook, which is an open source.
13 Relying on agencies from each country, as well as a synthesis of data from United Nations divisions, Eurostate Demographic statistics, the U.S. Census international database, and its own data collection, the World Bank's Open Data site offers free and open access to data about development in countries around the globe.
14 The Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom is a systematic, empirical measurement of economic freedom in countries throughout the world. A set of objective economic criteria are used to study and grade various countries for the annual publication of the Index of Economic Freedom. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.
15 The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.
16 The 2013 Gender Inequality Index is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labor market. It varies between zero (when women and men fare equally) and one (when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions). The health dimension is measured by two indicators: maternal mortality ratio and the adolescent fertility rate. The empowerment dimension is also measured by two indicators: the share of parliamentary seats held by each sex and by secondary and higher education attainment levels. The labor dimension is measured by women’s participation in the work force. Source: The United Nations Human Development Reports provide data and statistical analysis in various areas of human development. The Human Development Report (HDR) presents two types of statistics: the human development indicator tables, which provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development, and thematic statistical analysis. A dataset with these and the other international measures highlighted on the country pages can be downloaded from this website. Used with permission.
17 Military data is drawn from the National Material Capabilities (v4.0) dataset, which is a component of and hosted by the Correlates of War Project. The Correlates of War Project seeks to facilitate the collection, dissemination, and use of accurate and reliable quantitative data in international relations. Correlates of War data may be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.
18 The article by Brian Grim and Roger Finke describes the coding of the U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom reports. The 2003, 2005, and 2008 reports were coded by researchers at the Association of Religion Data Archives. The GRI, GFI and SRI values reported on the National Profiles are averages from the 2003, 2005, and 2008 International Religious Freedom reports, while the Religious Persecution measure is an average from the 2005 and 2008 reports. All other measures derived from the International Religious Freedom reports were coded from the reports 2008. A data file with all of the 2008 coding, as well as data files with other cross national collections are available for preview and download from the data archive on this site. Used with permission.
19 The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset contains standards-based quantitative information on government respect for 15 internationally recognized human rights for 202 countries, annually from 1981-2011. It is designed for use by scholars and students who seek to test theories about the causes and consequences of human rights violations, as well as policy makers and analysts who seek to estimate the human rights effects of a wide variety of institutional changes and public policies including democratization, economic aid, military aid, structural adjustment, and humanitarian intervention. The full CIRI Human Rights Dataset can be accessed through the above link. Used with permission.